Futuristic Design Description

translator: joseph genireviewer: morton bast the most massive tsunami perfect storm is bearing down upon us. this perfect storm is mounting a grim reality, increasingly grim reality, and we are facing that reality with the full belief that we can solve our problems with technology,

and that's very understandable. now, this perfect storm that we are facing is the result of our rising population, rising towards 10 billion people, land that is turning to desert, and, of course, climate change. now there's no question about it at all: we will only solve the problem of replacing fossil fuels with technology.

but fossil fuels, carbon -- coal and gas -- are by no means the only thing that is causing climate change. desertification is a fancy word for land that is turning to desert, and this happens only when we create too much bare ground. there's no other cause. and i intend to focus

on most of the world's land that is turning to desert. but i have for you a very simple message that offers more hope than you can imagine. we have environments where humidity is guaranteed throughout the year. on those, it is almost impossible to create vast areas of bare ground. no matter what you do, nature covers it up so quickly. and we have environments

where we have months of humidity followed by months of dryness, and that is where desertification is occurring. fortunately, with space technology now, we can look at it from space, and when we do, you can see the proportions fairly well. generally, what you see in green is not desertifying, and what you see in brown is,

and these are by far the greatest areas of the earth. about two thirds, i would guess, of the world is desertifying. i took this picture in the tihamah desert while 25 millimeters -- that's an inch of rain -- was falling. think of it in terms of drums of water, each containing 200 liters. over 1,000 drums of water fell on every hectare of that land that day. the next day, the land looked like this.

where had that water gone? some of it ran off as flooding, but most of the water that soaked into the soil simply evaporated out again, exactly as it does in your garden if you leave the soil uncovered. now, because the fate of water and carbon are tied to soil organic matter, when we damage soils, you give off carbon.

carbon goes back to the atmosphere. now you're told over and over, repeatedly, that desertification is only occurring in arid and semi-arid areas of the world, and that tall grasslands like this one in high rainfall are of no consequence. but if you do not look at grasslands but look down into them, you find that most of the soil in that grassland that you've just seen is bare and covered with a crust of algae,

leading to increased runoff and evaporation. that is the cancer of desertification that we do not recognize till its terminal form. now we know that desertification is caused by livestock, mostly cattle, sheep and goats, overgrazing the plants, leaving the soil bare and giving off methane. almost everybody knows this, from nobel laureates to golf caddies,

or was taught it, as i was. now, the environments like you see here, dusty environments in africa where i grew up, and i loved wildlife, and so i grew up hating livestock because of the damage they were doing. and then my university education as an ecologist reinforced my beliefs. well, i have news for you.

we were once just as certain that the world was flat. we were wrong then, and we are wrong again. and i want to invite you now to come along on my journey of reeducation and discovery. when i was a young man, a young biologist in africa, i was involved in setting aside marvelous areas as future national parks.

now no sooner — this was in the 1950s — and no sooner did we remove the hunting, drum-beating people to protect the animals, than the land began to deteriorate, as you see in this park that we formed. now, no livestock were involved, but suspecting that we had too many elephants now, i did the research and i proved we had too many, and i recommended that we would have to reduce their numbers

and bring them down to a level that the land could sustain. now, that was a terrible decision for me to have to make, and it was political dynamite, frankly. so our government formed a team of experts to evaluate my research. they did. they agreed with me, and over the following years, we shot 40,000 elephants to try to stop the damage. and it got worse, not better.

loving elephants as i do, that was the saddest and greatest blunder of my life, and i will carry that to my grave. one good thing did come out of it. it made me absolutely determined to devote my life to finding solutions. when i came to the united states, i got a shock, to find national parks like this one desertifying as badly as anything in africa.

and there'd been no livestock on this land for over 70 years. and i found that american scientists had no explanation for this except that it is arid and natural. so i then began looking at all the research plots i could over the whole of the western united states where cattle had been removed

to prove that it would stop desertification, but i found the opposite, as we see on this research station, where this grassland that was green in 1961, by 2002 had changed to that situation. and the authors of the position paper on climate change from which i obtained these pictures attribute this change to "unknown processes." clearly, we have never understood

what is causing desertification, which has destroyed many civilizations and now threatens us globally. we have never understood it. take one square meter of soil and make it bare like this is down here, and i promise you, you will find it much colder at dawn and much hotter at midday than that same piece of ground if it's just covered with litter,

plant litter. you have changed the microclimate. now, by the time you are doing that and increasing greatly the percentage of bare ground on more than half the world's land, you are changing macroclimate. but we have just simply not understood why was it beginning to happen 10,000 years ago? why has it accelerated lately?

we had no understanding of that. what we had failed to understand was that these seasonal humidity environments of the world, the soil and the vegetation developed with very large numbers of grazing animals, and that these grazing animals developed with ferocious pack-hunting predators. now, the main defense against pack-hunting predators is to get into herds,

and the larger the herd, the safer the individuals. now, large herds dung and urinate all over their own food, and they have to keep moving, and it was that movement that prevented the overgrazing of plants, while the periodic trampling ensured good cover of the soil, as we see where a herd has passed. this picture is a typical seasonal grassland.

it has just come through four months of rain, and it's now going into eight months of dry season. and watch the change as it goes into this long dry season. now, all of that grass you see aboveground has to decay biologically before the next growing season, and if it doesn't, the grassland and the soil begin to die. now, if it does not decay biologically, it shifts to oxidation, which is a very slow process,

and this smothers and kills grasses, leading to a shift to woody vegetation and bare soil, releasing carbon. to prevent that, we have traditionally used fire. but fire also leaves the soil bare, releasing carbon, and worse than that, burning one hectare of grassland gives off more, and more damaging, pollutants than 6,000 cars.

and we are burning in africa, every single year, more than one billion hectares of grasslands, and almost nobody is talking about it. we justify the burning, as scientists, because it does remove the dead material and it allows the plants to grow. now, looking at this grassland of ours that has gone dry, what could we do to keep that healthy? and bear in mind, i'm talking of most of the world's land now.

okay? we cannot reduce animal numbers to rest it more without causing desertification and climate change. we cannot burn it without causing desertification and climate change. what are we going to do? there is only one option, i'll repeat to you, only one option left to climatologists and scientists, and that is to do the unthinkable,

and to use livestock, bunched and moving, as a proxy for former herds and predators, and mimic nature. there is no other alternative left to mankind. so let's do that. so on this bit of grassland, we'll do it, but just in the foreground. we'll impact it very heavily with cattle to mimic nature, and we've done so, and look at that.

all of that grass is now covering the soil as dung, urine and litter or mulch, as every one of the gardeners amongst you would understand, and that soil is ready to absorb and hold the rain, to store carbon, and to break down methane. and we did that, without using fire to damage the soil, and the plants are free to grow. when i first realized

that we had no option as scientists but to use much-vilified livestock to address climate change and desertification, i was faced with a real dilemma. how were we to do it? we'd had 10,000 years of extremely knowledgeable pastoralists bunching and moving their animals, but they had created the great manmade deserts of the world. then we'd had 100 years of modern rain science,

and that had accelerated desertification, as we first discovered in africa and then confirmed in the united states, and as you see in this picture of land managed by the federal government. clearly more was needed than bunching and moving the animals, and humans, over thousands of years, had never been able to deal with nature's complexity.

but we biologists and ecologists had never tackled anything as complex as this. so rather than reinvent the wheel, i began studying other professions to see if anybody had. and i found there were planning techniques that i could take and adapt to our biological need, and from those i developed what we call holistic management and planned grazing, a planning process,

and that does address all of nature's complexity and our social, environmental, economic complexity. today, we have young women like this one teaching villages in africa how to put their animals together into larger herds, plan their grazing to mimic nature, and where we have them hold their animals overnight -- we run them in a predator-friendly manner, because we have a lot of lands, and so on --

and where they do this and hold them overnight to prepare the crop fields, we are getting very great increases in crop yield as well. let's look at some results. this is land close to land that we manage in zimbabwe. it has just come through four months of very good rains it got that year, and it's going into the long dry season. but as you can see, all of that rain, almost of all it, has evaporated from the soil surface.

their river is dry despite the rain just having ended, and we have 150,000 people on almost permanent food aid. now let's go to our land nearby on the same day, with the same rainfall, and look at that. our river is flowing and healthy and clean. it's fine. the production of grass, shrubs, trees, wildlife, everything is now more productive,

and we have virtually no fear of dry years. and we did that by increasing the cattle and goats 400 percent, planning the grazing to mimic nature and integrate them with all the elephants, buffalo, giraffe and other animals that we have. but before we began, our land looked like that. this site was bare and eroding for over 30 years regardless of what rain we got.

okay? watch the marked tree and see the change as we use livestock to mimic nature. this was another site where it had been bare and eroding, and at the base of the marked small tree, we had lost over 30 centimeters of soil. okay? and again, watch the change just using livestock to mimic nature. and there are fallen trees in there now,

because the better land is now attracting elephants, etc. this land in mexico was in terrible condition, and i've had to mark the hill because the change is so profound. (applause) i began helping a family in the karoo desert in the 1970s turn the desert that you see on the right there back to grassland, and thankfully, now their grandchildren are on the land

with hope for the future. and look at the amazing change in this one, where that gully has completely healed using nothing but livestock mimicking nature, and once more, we have the third generation of that family on that land with their flag still flying. the vast grasslands of patagonia are turning to desert as you see here. the man in the middle is an argentinian researcher,

and he has documented the steady decline of that land over the years as they kept reducing sheep numbers. they put 25,000 sheep in one flock, really mimicking nature now with planned grazing, and they have documented a 50-percent increase in the production of the land in the first year. we now have in the violent horn of africa pastoralists planning their grazing to mimic nature and openly saying it is the only hope they have

of saving their families and saving their culture. ninety-five percent of that land can only feed people from animals. i remind you that i am talking about most of the world's land here that controls our fate, including the most violent region of the world, where only animals can feed people from about 95 percent of the land. what we are doing globally is causing climate change

as much as, i believe, fossil fuels, and maybe more than fossil fuels. but worse than that, it is causing hunger, poverty, violence, social breakdown and war, and as i am talking to you, millions of men, women and children are suffering and dying. and if this continues, we are unlikely to be able to stop the climate changing,

even after we have eliminated the use of fossil fuels. i believe i've shown you how we can work with nature at very low cost to reverse all this. we are already doing so on about 15 million hectares on five continents, and people who understand far more about carbon than i do

calculate that, for illustrative purposes, if we do what i am showing you here, we can take enough carbon out of the atmosphere and safely store it in the grassland soils for thousands of years, and if we just do that on about half the world's grasslands that i've shown you, we can take us back to pre-industrial levels, while feeding people.

i can think of almost nothing that offers more hope for our planet, for your children, and their children, and all of humanity. thank you. thank you. (applause) thank you, chris. chris anderson: thank you. i have, and i'm sure everyone here has,

a) a hundred questions, b) wants to hug you. i'm just going to ask you one quick question. when you first start this and you bring in a flock of animals, it's desert. what do they eat? how does that part work? how do you start? allan savory: well, we have done this for a long time, and the only time we have ever had to provide any feed is during mine reclamation, where it's 100 percent bare.

but many years ago, we took the worst land in zimbabwe, where i offered a â£5 note in a hundred-mile drive if somebody could find one grass in a hundred-mile drive, and on that, we trebled the stocking rate, the number of animals, in the first year with no feeding, just by the movement, mimicking nature, and using a sigmoid curve, that principle.

it's a little bit technical to explain here, but just that. ca: well, i would love to -- i mean, this such an interesting and important idea. the best people on our blog are going to come and talk to you and try and -- i want to get more on this that we could share along with the talk.as: wonderful. ca: that is an astonishing talk, truly an astonishing talk, and i think you heard that we all are cheering you on your way. thank you so much.as: well, thank you. thank you. thank you, chris.

Futuristic Design Clothes

hello everyone, good to see you again. ehh today we're gona build something awesome! today we're gona build a high school! i've just placed a sign with the number 6 cause on every side of the sign are 6 blocks here you can see: 1,2,3,4,5,6 in total and here: 1,2,3,4,5,6 in total and there is also a block in the middle. in total we get 13 blocks made with sandstone stairs

i'm using the same texture pack as always and i have made a little road, to make it a bit more cosy ehm, i think we can start now. by placing a sandstone block right here and here i think that i gona pop this out, like this but then we get a block on the pavement, let me try this let's take worldedit with us and select this corner and this corner

slash slash set, oops! let's switch off my capslock. set four and then we get a bigger pavement. which is more convenient let's continue with our sandstone thing let's put here one on top ok, like this: we're gona make an amarican style school and let's place here some sandstone stairs

so far we have a layer of two stairs maybe we can add one more layer and then we're gona do this: then we're gona build it up we can also change it to four instead of three take your stairs but first let me place some blocks under it that would make it easier to place the stairs

stair are very anoying to place without block under it just like glass panes. they are also anoying... most of the time they will facing to the wrong direction... and with stairs, you get them to stand upside down and that is very anoying... and let's take this out by three blocks and maybe we can place her something like a path to the entrance of the school and fill this up with sandstone i think these episodes will take a long time, because we're gona make a big school!

and american things are usually quite large and because of that, we'd made a high stair, like high school!

Futuristic Design Characteristics

like to be able to see into the futurethat is an intriguing question that has been contemplated time and time againthroughout human history famous stories from the oracle of delphiall the way to the hysteria around the mayan calendar in modern towns have insome way dealt with the idea of humans seen into the future this idea has shaped popular culture andour science fiction with that one tantalizing idea of what f in the realworld the answer to the question of can we seeinto the future has been answered with a resounding now in our ever-evolvingsociety the trend today is to look

toward the future by relying onpredictive modeling to best predict the probability of an outcome but we allknow that even these well-thought-out predictions based on data often turn outto be not so predictable although it's clear that future eventsremain virtually unknowable there is one group within nasa that comes as close asyou can to seeing into the future throughout nasa's field centers membersof the fixed wing project team are peering into the future every day andcoming up with concepts that they believe will be on the next generationof aircraft because it takes years to plan and develop these concepts thehardware and theories that are being

tested today will be key components thatenable the next generation of aircraft to take flight on this episode of nasa ads follow usaround the country as we visit members of the fundamental aeronautics programsfixed wing project who are developing the framework that will shape howaircraft of the future will fly take a look behind the gates of nasa to seewhat some of these new ideas look like and how the engineers of nasa are pavingthe way for the ideas that will change the future of flight the untrained eye

most of the aircraft of today look verysimilar this is because over the past century of flight aeronautical engineershave worked hard to optimize passenger aircraft to the point where they are isefficient and safe as possible as a result the basic two men win shapehas been configured and examined from every possible angle making it the mostefficient design possible today although aircraft have left basicallythe same over the past few decades if you look closely you can see some of themajor design changes things that will once swept back more dramatically noware less so because of advances in aerodynamic shaping engines that spewedemissions by about time are now much

more efficient materials that will onceso heavy that they significantly way down a craft are now much lighter andstronger with all this improvement and efficiency it is fair to ask if there isanything else that can be done to make flight even better the answer is ofcourse yet behind the gates of nasa there are scores of researchers you knowthat we can still make aircraft better because they are working toward theselong-term goals everyday some of these researchers from the sixth win projectare working on so-called in plus three configurations and gold in mathematical terms the letter in iswhere you start now in plus one is the

next step in plus two is just beyondthat and so on here in the fixed wing project in + 3gquaids two aircraft that will be flying around the 2030 2035 timeframe for thisteam everything is on the table includingengines fuels wings and fuselage shapes will have to remember the first a nasaaeronautics national aeronautics and space administration aeronautics is tofeel research for the airplanes fly were research and experimented with inmany years ago so we're trying to continue that tradition important work that we have done for thenation on the wall for twenty years from

now 61 use another research firm activities to try to prove the air but iwouldn't be playing the future to try to make them less noisy better for theenvironment would try to make them they will use less fuel the research weredoing is important because air travel is such an important part of your lifepeople travel even if you don't travel cargo jets carried every single day toyou something every single day that gets carried by an aircraft part of our wayof life these days and it often gets taken for granted their challengesthough so pleased are focused on developing technologies and concepts toprove the energy efficiency and

environmental compatibility is transportaircraft with this mandate to significantly lower noise and emissionsand increase performance for subsonic aircraft there will be a need to addressvirtually every aspect of the current aircraft configuration includingdeveloping new materials and engines testing alternative fuels and evenchanging the fundamental shape of the aircraft all across the country fixed wing researchers are doing justthat major advancements are being made into the understanding of how futureaircraft will fly because there are so many areas of study let's first look atsomething that has the potential to be

used today as well as in the twentythirty timeframe alternative fuels on this beautiful morning at nasadriving in california's high desert a test called access for the alternativefuel effects on contrails and crews emissions test was performed to studythe effects of alternate biofuel on engine performance emissions andaircraft generated contrails at altitude for this test two aircraft will float intandem the first is nasa's dec 8 which will be burning and alternative fuel the second aircraft is nasa's docketthat will fly directly behind the dcaa 82 measure and characterize theemissions coming out of the engines from

the alternative fuels nasa's bruce anderson to explain hisrole is in assessing the combustion characteristics of alternative fuels aswell as determining how these deals with that performance and emissions fromaircraft to understand how aircraft climate we need to make measurements aresult so the focus of access or alternatively 60 contrails and crewsemissions whereas to fly behind the dca in flight and look at its ambition andcontrol characteristics as we changed from standard jet fuel to a fuel thatwas the end of a deal that was made from camelina oil and and also added fiftypercent of a day to that there are some

other groups out there tyson foods is making a bio bio jet fuelfrom chicken processing plant so there's a number of different ways of makingthese alternative fuels all of them resulted in a fairly clean kerosene that doesn't havenearly the containment providers fundamental thing is the aircraft has toretain its performance characteristics when you feel you can't have any drop inpower to fuel also has to have similar characteristics in terms of volume tocarefully so what we're looking at is drop-in fuels a lot of the fuel systemtold the aircraft were designed to rely

on the aromatics fossil fuels to swellthe seals to make a bleak type so one might fly an alternative fuel we have tomix it with standard fuel to retain those problems otherwise the fuel andthen the second thing we're looking at is just the emission characteristics bythat i mean the amount of pollution generated per kilogram of your book after the first few flights it was shownthat using these types of alternative fuels could significantly reduceemissions at cruising altitudes particularly suited missions workcontinues to better understand how to use these fuels and how to make themeven more efficient for future aircraft

the idea that aircraft today here looking at this unique designbecause designers have included a clever design has the potential to operatecloser to advances in battery technology but those are happening throughout theworld independent station history and we'retrying to leverage that you like ours which is built into our airplaneseventually the challenges to take those batteries have no energy or powercontent and have been be lightweight where we are today i think is we're atthe dawn of the age where we could start see electric propulsion hybrid electricpropulsion and if you see it on small

aircraft first before you see it on thelarge commercial transports that's what we're working towards that's good for cleanliness that's goodfor noise energy efficiency has its challenges that's why we're working on it that'swhy it's not being done today the idea behind this vehicle is to have its twinengines burn fuel and great powers needed like it take off when the craftis in a crease configuration ass which can be made over to a battery-electricto supplement or even replace power to the engines if successful this couldreduce the amount of fuel burn by up to

70% another concept called turboelectric propulsion is being studied here at the nasa glenn research center jerry brown to explain there's not beenelected airplanes and attracting very small size and the reason is theelectric motors and generators tend to be too heavy for white we're hoping tochange that and we're hoping to get a bit frustrating process thehydroelectric we're talking about the various electric propulsion we're goingto keep the termination because it's really good cars lot of power smallpower player and then we're going to use its power to drive the generator sendelectricity to motors drive fans

this concept will look very differentfrom vehicles of today as well potential designs include two largeturbine engines on the wing tips that will drive to large generators insidethe body the generators will in turn power a number of fans providing thepropulsion the aircraft needs to fly what we want to do here is want to beable to great determination from the fans gives the aircraft is another oneof freedom itself had just engine and trans don't have to turn the same speedfans and that's what we're really looking for a reg baby 1500 just enteryou might to keep just too big engines because this idea is intriguing but bigchanges need to be made to make it

viable when major challenges the need toreduce the size of the generators because the generators of today are waytoo big to fit on an aircraft one idea that the nasa team is looking at is away to remove the current type of copper windings in the generator and replace itwith superconducting material this change would allow the generators toshrink making them liable to bid on future aircraft new aircraft is the potential to greatlyimprove efficiency another these revolutionary design has come out of ajoint mit and metastatic this unique design is called the double bubble andhas the potential to reduce fuel burn by

up to 70% as well mit eight double bubble design somethingthat working with working with a number of years on that idea there is to takesome of the lift that you would normally get from the wings in trying to movethat to know the thing that's done to enable laminar flow on this vehicle isto reduce the sweet but the wings it is easier to maintain laminar flow thewings instead of being swept back like a lot of commercial transports are moreserve perpendicular to the side of the bodies of land another aspect of thedeviated prudently discusses something you can see in these pictures behind youcan see the picture on the right

comes from cfd what we call in thepotted configuration spotted separately off to the side the ideas we hope to gethere stream that's relatively painted by what's happening over the airplane ofpressures to go into infantry or propulsion image in themiddle on the other hand have been moved inside that tight lil configuration andby doing that we actually get some benefits if you can use the engines torefill that area did here behind the plane you have a chance at being moreefficient in terms of propulsion for that vehicle given a certain amount ofyou for trying to push the envelope see what is the maximum benefit that couldbe obtained by this time the

configuration to understand what'sreally possible wonders if you'll see 18 much of the work is improvedcomputational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing right here in thisbuilding we have played a supercomputer which is one of the largestsupercomputers in the usa in the world it has 200,000 processors working on theproblem if you use the home machine on one problem so it's a very large machineand we need that very large machine tools we need to do very big problem nota research director who were using it for his try and simulate the flow overthe simplest reconfigurations so in order to capture all the details you seeon the vehicle like this

including what's going on inside thecombustors of the engines and things like that you need to have a lot of gridpoints to resolve all the food motion inside those engines over there playingand having that many good points to resolve all that physics in threedimensions creates very large computational grids require very bigmachine means to advance the cover the motion toget these cfd computational fluid dynamics solutions that we used to makeourself aerodynamicists of today are able to model ideas on computers whichallows them to test many different configurations before a window modelsever built

once a design is agreed upon a windtunnel model can then be fabricated and tested this process was used for thedouble-double as well but the wind tunnel tests showed surprising resultswere good news is that we've just completed the first test of thisconfiguration in the langley 14 by 22 wind tunnel at langley it showed even more a greater reductionor he will efficiency benefits of this technology than we had predicted onpaper with our are low so we're trying to digest the experimental data thatshow this nice benefit in fuel efficiency from this configuration atthe same time we're also using the

supercomputer here at that scene playeda supercomputer to do computational fluid dynamics cfd runs ofthe same configuration and see if we can confirm that benefit on thecomputational side as well as team will continue on the double bubble and if theresults hold you may see this type of aircraft in an airport near you in thefuture when testing aircraft many different stages of her we have alreadymentioned cfd and wind tunnel testing but another tool in testing futuredesigns is to build a flying skill model although cfd and window modeling is themainstay often test flights of these small scaled-downversions of an aircraft offer some of

the most dramatic results forresearchers that is the case with this aircraft called the x 56 aircraft is being used as a test bed tounderstand how different configurations work and how a unique idea called activecontrol may be used in the future holds beyond their trip is long known thatvery long wingspan goal is more efficient than short wings vehicleproblem is when you get very long wingspan you start to get into issueswith modern modes start to creep into the vehicle the wing will go on stable and inextreme cases will rip off the vehicle

to get around that problem you can useflight controls to suppress those remote control as you put things like excelrumors with him a wing and it soon as you sense the wind is starting to getinto these modes use the control surfaces behind the way to be out thereare plenty of the flyers continually fighting these people mostly straightthen you can build a lighter long-term goal is more efficient this be a call bythe airport through the filter of a multi-utility technology they call itfrom what i heard and open to a lot of different kind of testing but we are removed all the input on aplain white wing you could do it joined

wing configuration learned quite a bitfrom kathleen this kind of vehicle right now the focus is on flexible wing andactivex control of rebel wins but in the future there are many experimentsvehicle the research on the control oflightweight flexible wins being performed today on the x 56 is key toenabling the long low drag and low weight wings of tomorrow's in plus threeconfigurations much is going into understanding what itwill take to improve the already incredibly efficient aircraft of today into ultra efficient vehicles of thefuture although we don't have all the

answers yet it's clear that nafta andit's brilliant engineers and researchers are helping to lead the way to a saferand more efficient way to travel we are no where near done we can get outof this industry there is a lot of work to do that's what my team is doingthat's what we're doing with it and i cannot wait for the future

Futuristic Costume Design

the wheelwright travelingfellowship was started, it's one of the oldestfellowships the gsd has, and one of themost, well, i guess it is the most prestigious,was started in 1935. in 2013, it was transformedfrom a fellowship that was only for students ofarchitecture at the gsd, for alumni of the department,was transformed from that, which it had been since 1935into an open international competition available to earlycareer architects worldwide.

and the aim shifted a littlebit as the school had shifted to focus, it was atraveling fellowship, explicitly atraveling fellowship, and travel is mandatory bythe terms of the fellowship. but it's shifted alittle bit to include what we're calling newforms of design as research. not design differentfrom research or design plus research,but design as research is what we were looking for.

and especially because it is atraveling fellowship informed by cross cultural engagement. it's really interestingto look at the terms. it's a very peculiarlywritten fellowship. there can be no deliverables. we cannot ask anything of thewinner, not even a phone call. i'll come back to that. and clearly, what the peoplewho wrote it had in mind was the european beaux-arttradition of the grand tour.

it was for americans at a timewhen it seemed, i suppose, that very few americanstudents could travel. and i think thetravel was to europe. i think it was quite clearthat it was conceptualized as a european trip whenvery few americans could travel either financiallyor just sort of culturally. most students at gsdwere not equipped. and it was somehowimagined-- or this is how now i imagine it--that the winner would

go to paestum, of course,and do watercolors of the greek temples, orthey would travel to rome and sketch all the ancientroman to legitimate in this tradition ofthe ecole des beaux-arts to legitimate the intellectualas a cultured and worldly intellectual as opposed tojust a kind of trade person or crafts person. i should say craftsman,because they're were all men then as well.

that's the other thing thatis clear in the writing of the award. today, it wasreally interesting. in the middle ofthe day, some of you joined us in themiddle of today, we heard from the threefinalists of the third year of the new fellowship. and it was interestingthat as i was listening to their presentations aboutwhere they wanted to go

and why, i was analogizingthem with this idea of the grand tour. only now, the places they wantedto go, like erik l'heureux, to the equatorial citiesof various continents to film architecturesof atmosphere, he called them, having to dowith wind and water and the way buildings interactwith wind and water. no more watercolors,no more sketches. now it's videotape andarchitectures of atmosphere.

or malkit shoshan fromamsterdam going, so imagine greece androme or the sahel area of africa, whichis where she wanted to go to map areas ofconflict, spaces of conflict, spaces where powerand imposition and reterritorializationare kind of invading africanvillages as her grand tour. or quynh vantu who lives inlondon going to korea, japan, other cities in asia to studytraditional architectures who

embrace and construct ritualsand kinesthetic issues of movement and threshold andritual in what, i would call, i think an ethicsof kinesthesia, an ethics ofkinesthesia, which she has learned in her own design. but now will study thetraditional histories of other architecturesand incorporate those. and there's somethingvery beautiful about that that as different asthey were that this experience

of place, being in aplace, being in a culture, and studying therepresentations, the architecturalrepresentations of that culture, how, infact, the travelers in 1935, and the travelers now arenot so different maybe after all in that sense. i think that's certainly thecase of our inaugural winner whom we have heretonight, gia wolff. i said there canbe no deliverables,

but gia has been oneof the most generous and in touch people,awardees, i can imagine. she's advised otherapplicants, and other winners-- or the other winner, ishould say-- at this point. there's been a lotof correspondence with gia and the jury, anda lot of advice from gia. it's wide open, but it is truethat gia is, nevertheless, an alum of the school. she graduated in 2008.

we didn't think about that. i think we genuinelydidn't consider that when we awarded her, but i was veryglad just after we awarded her that she was alum. but really, it wasselfish, because she's one of the few, other alum,i knew some of the winners, but i knew gia pretty well. she had been here as a studentsince i have been here. and i remember thedepth of her generosity.

gia, she was really interestedin the events of architecture or interested inarchitecture as an event, as a construction of an event. and she always hadthis warm glow in her. and it's been amazingto see that glow focused and sharpened and facetedinto a much more articulated and multifaceted project thati think will continue long after the money has been spent. when she graduated from gsd, sheworked for the acconci studio.

she worked for adjayeassociates, lot-ek, very different kinds of practices. but, again, all practiceswho, in very different ways, are concerned witharchitecture and performance. she made up projects forherself-- installations, objects, events. she exhibited at whitecolumns in new york storefront for art and architecture. at pace university, there'sthe peter fingesten gallery.

and really projects,many of which she invented herselfand executed herself. later, she became a collaboratorwith phantom limb company on design of stage sets formarionette performances. and all of this wasin her portfolio along with her proposal tostudy the community based architecture of paradefloats in various cities and the architecture ofcarnival, if you will. gia is presently anadjunct assistant professor

at pratt instituteand teaches also at the irwin chanin school ofarchitecture at cooper union, and i just want to welcomeher, and really thank her. we've all been able toparticipate and enjoy gia's travels. maybe not directly,but certainly because of the correspondenceand the generosity, so i want to thank her andwelcome her at the same time. thanks.

thank you, michael. that was just an incrediblynice introduction. i am so honored to be heretoday among the finalists, the incredibly talentedfinalists for this year's prize, and thespecial people who are here making specialappearances wherever you are in the audience. so i won the prize in2013, and it really has been an incredible,an incredible two years.

although the prizestipulates two years to complete the research,the trouble in my case is that it's becominga life's work. while i have an immense amountof images to share today, i already know that ihave at least another year or two years ahead ofme before i'll fully complete this mission. so what i have today is stilla bit of a work in progress. i have to ask you to bear withme for a few quick minutes.

i have a number of peopleto thank, many of whom out of their owntime and interest have helped make thisproject what it is today. and i really, i can't be herewithout thanking them first. the gsd, the wheelwright prizecommittee, cathy, ben, mohsen, michael, jorge, and thevarious other harvard staff who've been incrediblesupport over the last two years. both personally andinstitutionally, you all really

continue to make thisgift keep giving. my incredible team in rio,cesio, vera, lourdes, alex, daryan, aron, gabriela,luciana, juan, marcos, rubem. my new york support,john hartmann, freecell, andrea monfried, michael webb,[? graham ?] [? shane, ?] julia locktev, and, of course, allof my family who are tuning in live in losangeles right now, even my mom who canceledher clients to watch. and the many, manyothers who have

provided feedback andconnections and resources along the way. and certainly, certainlynot least, my most recent collaborator,claire tancons, who is simply one of themost brilliant women i know and an invaluablecarnival resource. after i share therio research, i'm going to show two projectsi worked on with claire. i hope to have shownthree, but actually

along with themusician, arto lindsay, who was just playingwhile everybody was taking their seats, thethree of us will be working on a projectcoming up this year. that's it for this. when i set out tostart the research, i literally had a two pageproposal and nothing else. while the subject was a cleartrajectory of my career path, it was also completelynew territory.

i knew very littleabout carnival. i'd never been to brazil. i didn't speak portuguese. i had limited first-handexperience in carnivals. i was literallystarting from scratch. and as with most projects, itstarted incredibly ambitious. i was supposed to have traveledto five different countries by now, which istill plan to do. but for now, i'm still unpackingthe famous rio carnival.

the rio researchitself, the research has revealed itself in somany different mediums. but one that i'mstill in awe over is how i was ableto form a solid team as a stranger walking into acompletely foreign country. i think this is partlydue to a good idea transcending the means. a good idea naturallylends itself to externalparticipation, but also,

how an idea is ableto transform itself given the right opportunity. in this case, throughthe wheelwright prize. i wasn't exactlysure where to begin, but i started by writingto literally everyone who gave me a contact. and over the courseof a few months, i wrote to over 100strangers, and by the time i arrived in rio,on my first trip,

i was able to meet about 20. out of those, five have becomepivotal colleagues, friends, and my rio family. and since then,this group has grown into a solid team whoeach have a crucial role in the formation of the work. so what i'm showing hereis a list of everyone who has directlycontributed to the project, with the bolded names beingthose who have profoundly

been instrumental. so it's really a lot ofpeople at this point. i'm presuming likemyself two years ago, most people here don't knowtoo much about rio's carnival other than it bearing a lotof feathers and precisely molded asses. there is no shortageof those, but really what makes rio sounique is not just the visually magnificentfloats, but how

they possess anintangible power that draws from their deeprooted relationships to the urban fabric intothe diverse communities that build them. this upcoming year, iwill be more focused on the communityaspects of carnival so for now, i'll be alittle brief about that, and focus rather on some ofthe other more urban findings. this is the incredible city ofrio, and hatched in the corner

here is where most of thecarnival action takes place. but the community relationshipswith each samba school really stretch out intothe entirety of the city. and just to clarify,a samba school is comprised of everycomponent in carnival, not just the sambadance or music. it is the music, it's thefloats, it's the dancers, it's really everything. and in rio, each samba schoolcompetes with one another.

in fact, it's ausually economic force in the country, and somethingthat everyone connects with. even if they're notthat into carnival, if you ask them who theirschool is you bet they have one. maybe it was their father'sschool or their grandparent's, but they have one, the same waythat they have a soccer team even if they're notthat into sports. so one of the schools thatresponded to my initial letter was mangueira, whichis one of the oldest

traditional and ubiquitouslyloved samba schools. as with most sambaschools, they're connected to aparticular community, and usually it's afavela, if i'm correct. but this doesn't necessarilymean that the favela residents are the only people who parade. anyone can join a school. there about 6,000 people whoparticipate with each school, and i think about2,000 or so are often

foreigners who justbuy costumes, quickly learn the routine,and song and parade. so here we see, this isthe mangueira favela. this is their [? gres, ?] whichis their community center, and this is vila olimpica, whichis a kind of larger community center. this is the [? gres, ?]and each school has one, and they're locatedin their community. and it's where all thedance and music rehearsals

happen throughout the year. but especiallyunique for mangueira is the vila olimpica,which is a large complex of little buildings that rangefrom a medical center, library, sports facilities, to schools,preschools, high school, and a trade school. we were given a tourof the facility, which has been listed by the unescoas a world heritage site. and it's prettyunique to mangueira.

i haven't foundany other schools that have a facility like this. you can see thebasketball court, and then the two kind of trade schoolfacilities, the plumbing. all, of course, adorned withtheir pink and green colors, which they have alot of pride in. so this map is showingthe three areas where the main parading takes place. cidade do samba issamba city, and it's

the facility where the specialschools, the first level schools, where thefloats are built. that's samba city. and then thewarehouses, which is where the floats arebuilt before samba city, but now where the second tierand the third tier floats are built. and then this isthe sambadrome where the actual parading happens.

just to give youa little rundown, there are three tiersof samba schools. the first group, which is thespecial group, has 12 schools. they have the mostmoney, and they have each eight floats per school. the second level schools are,i think, there's about eight of them. they have very little money,and only about two floats each. and the third tier schools, ithink, there's a ton of them.

i'm not even sure how many,and they have very, very little money, and i thinkthere's usually about one float perschool, and they don't parade in the sambadrome. they parade around the city. and this is samba city. it's open to the public. you can't get intothe actual warehouses unless you're a guest,but you can see the two

different shadings,you can see the size of each warehouse per school. the centralized areais public, and they have events and promotionalactivities there. this is what it lookslike inside samba city. because carnival isso highly competitive, like a nationalsports team there, even though you can walkaround within the center area, the schools still maintain totalsecrecy of their upcoming plans

despite their close proximity. another school that openedtheir doors to me was portela. they gave me a tour of theirwarehouse in november of 2013. so i was able to get aglimpse of the entire facility and their construction process. i met their carnavelesco,who's there on the left. the carnavelesco islike the lead designer for the school's parade. and he happily shared withme his costume drawings,

but when i askedabout float drawings, no one seemed tospeak english anymore. but what i did learn,which was major, is the fact that there has tobe an architect or engineer stamp on the float drawings. this was really a huge--sorry-- huge revelation. when i mentioned to oneof my colleagues in rio that there were thesearchitecture drawings around, she didn't believe me,because there have never

been architecture drawingsof floats published. so who knows? but i did get to see aarchitecture drawing set from mangueira'swarehouse last year, so i did confirmthat it's not a myth, but i still needto figure out how to let somebody trust meenough that they will share it with me besides just kindof seeing it from afar. and inside portela, the basicprocess of flat construction

begins with a truck chassis witha steel structure welded to it, which is then coveredin wood and then foam. and there is actually a reallyhuge foam craft industry there too. this is a portrait of a welder. and so this upcomingyear, i'm going to be doing aseries of interviews with fabricators and someportrait shots bringing to light more ofthe people involved.

but they are really incrediblyproud of their work, and this man wasreally thrilled to have this portrait taken by my supertalented photographer in rio. and this is, onthe upper left, is the head craftsman, thehead wicker craftsman within the costume department. and i asked him wherehe learned his craft, and he said his father, wholearned it from his father, and now he was teachingit to the man below.

and to the right isthe costume prototype. and by will or bruteforce, i couldn't leave without trying on apart of the costume myself. i was actually reallysurprised at how heavy it was. those wings are madeout of a steel armature. these people paradefor an hour and a half in them at the peak summer. all right. so adjacent to samba cityare the old warehouses

that were once used forthe special schools that are now being used for thesecond and third tier schools. samba city is actuallyrelatively new. i think it's only aboutsix or eight years old. the old warehouses are wildand packed with pieces salvaged from first tier floats. they're almost like afloat graveyard really. the scene felt insanelydisproportionately different to the facilities ofthe first level schools

even though they were reallyjust the second tier schools. i walked into thisparticular warehouse, and within like asecond both of my legs were covered withmosquitoes and fleas. but because the stakes are sohigh with the special schools, it was easier tolearn about carnival at first by looking atthe lower level schools. facilities aside, theyshare so many similarities and their doorsare totally open.

it was a way to begin toaccess the information. and here, we cansee how many people are involved tomaneuver one float, and the ubiquitousdesire to build to just under theirown size limitations. and this is the sambadrome. it's the linear stadium wherethe first and second level schools parade. it was built by oscarniemeyer in 1984.

it's an incredibleconcrete structure. but prior to it, the floatsparaded on the streets, which would have also beenincredible to see in rio, and partly why i'mtraveling to some of the other citiesin the upcoming year. but parading inthe streets still does happen for the thirdlevel schools and for blocos. and the blocos areinformal street parties throughout the city.

they're not floats, they'remore just for people, but are still an incrediblesubject for another wheelwright prize. nevertheless, with thecreation of the sambadrome came a lot of innovation of thefloats in terms of their size and technology and mobility,which we will see some of. at the end of theavenue, there's an iconic arch, which ibelieve was originally meant for parading throughand back down the avenue.

this is not allowed anymorebecause since niemeyer's death, more box seats were built atthe base of the grandstand so now the floats justparade down the avenue and out onto the street. what you can see, sothey used actually come around and back throughand back down the avenue. and you can see these lights,how far back it actually goes. it's really huge. this is looking back down.

and the proximityof the urban fabric right behind the sambadromeis really incredible. in fact, some ofthe favelas, i have heard that they selltickets to watch the parade fromtheir houses, which is really cool, andsomething i would love to do. i spent an enormous amountof time in cidade do samba, and luckily, it has thecheapest parking in the city. it's only about six [? reais ?]for the day, which is like $3.

and the closer igot to carnival, the harder it was for meto get through to anyone. no one answered or returnedany of my emails or calls. tarps were used to cover thefloats that were bursting out of their hangers. photography even outsidewas not permitted, but clearly i snuck a few in. i did manage to get a tourof mangueira's hanger right before the parade,but, again, was not

allowed to photograph anything. rubem, the director of theescola de samba mangueira told us during our tourthat what we were seeing isn't anything likewhat the floats would look like during the parade. there you can seea little glimpse of them testing their lights. i was aware of how competitivecarnival is to cariocas and how the secretsof each school

are only ever seenoften for the first time during the carnival parade. but what was so secretive abouttheir final glitzing being adorned on each floator the dangling wires bursting through the 30 foottall flower stems with their 10 foot long petals resting ina pile on the floor awaiting one last coat of rubbercement and finishing frills? or a 10 foot wide by 20foot tall decapitated person whose belly was splayed openrevealing a bent steel grid

armature and an old blackenedengine for its guts? who was the giantbeing depicted? was this the big secret? i was looking for whattricks manguiera was hiding. new technologies, innovativeconstruction details, transformative flowmechanisms, hybrid assemblies, but nothing seemedvisibly obvious. rubem was right. two days later had i not heardthe loudspeaker announcement

followed by thedeafening fireworks that initiated manguiera'sstart down the sambadrome, i would never have knownthat what i saw moving slowly and rhythmically down thestreet were the same floats i had seen justa few days prior. it wasn't the fact that theflowers now had their heads on, which were flashing andspinning to the school song, nor was it the fact that thefloat's belly had been sewn up, and all of its 10foot long limbs

were waving at each bleacherfilled with thousands of people singing and dancingto the sambra rhythm. but to my surprise,it was the people who literally made the finaladdition to each float, embellishing thealready thick color, texture, and animated exteriorwith one last dynamic layer. the people gavethe float the scale that were both out of scaleyet within the unexpected scale of architecture.

there's a great cohesivenessbetween the people and the floats makingit difficult to separate its dynamic personality. [samba music playing] on one hand, the thematicstory represented on each float if viewed with aliteral perspective would seem like a surrealhyper-representation of simple everydayobjects like trees, soccer balls, or musical instruments,which are frequently

represented on the floats. such ubiquitous imageryis not unlike what you might expect tosee in many parades around the world, such asthe macy's day parade in new york that flaunts giant balloonsof spider-man, for example. however, there's somethingabout the floats in rio that transcend sucha common translation. it's not just the factthat these floats rank among the largest in theworld, but is rather something

much more powerful and deeprooted in their relationship to the urban andconstructed fabric as well as the communities within. we see a part of this duringthe hour and a half each school parades, but theconstruction of the floats happens throughoutthe entire year, and embeds itselfmuch more profoundly in the culture of the city. but the efforts of suchstrong community ties

do not go without incredibleawe and wonderment in how it all comestogether, keeping in mind that the floatsare built in pieces, and often only cometogether for the first time once they arriveat the sambadrome. and this float was by farone of the tallest i saw. you can't really tell here, butas it moved down the avenue, it transformed into anenormously huge figure. clearly, this floatcould not have

been tested prior to this dayas there would have been no way to have kept it a secret. so i could only capture ittransforming down not up, but it's still really cool. and i love how you beginto see the fragments of the architecturein the background. at the start ofthe parade, this is one of the first floats i saw. i took one look at itand thought, oh my god,

how on earth is this thingrelated to architecture? but it is so cool. [fireworks] like the spinning pianos, mostof the floats, while completely spectacular areincredibly literal, and seeing through thevisual representations are a challenge to seeing thearchitectural relationships. paulo barros is one of theonly carnavalescos working now that has some senseof abstraction

that he achievesthrough repetition. although still quite literal,these are stunning visuals. it's actually reallyhard to capture anything without dancingat the same time. and here's just one. so i drew this map after my2014 carnival, but it's wrong. i kept it anyway,because the larger truth is i'm not sure it'sever going to be right. it's really hard to tell yearby year what stays the same

and what changes. and as soon as ithink i have something down i'm reminded that thismay not be the same next year, so i didn't try to correct it. on one hand, ithink this is partly due to the incredible speedat which the physical city is changing, because of theworld cup and olympics. on the other hand, it's simplya carioca state of mind. and carioca, by the way, is theword for a brazilian from rio.

but the importantaspect of this map is the start and endpoints of the sambadrome. these two areas are wherewe see the floats being assembled and disassembled. because there are sixschools parading per night, the parade has tocontinuously move even as the floats are beingassembled and disassembled. keeping the timing andpace is so important that the floats are beingjudged even at these points.

lifts are used at both endsto get people on and off and attach and detach smallercomponents of the float. the floats are onlyfully assembled literally right before theyturn onto the avenue to parade. lifts attach peopleto the float so they have no way of gettingdown on their own so that they reallybecome part of the float. the scene is wild and seeminglydangerous, but apparently in control, in anot so obvious way.

but this scene wasmind opening as it exposed a very hidden side tothe spectacle of the event. [voices and beeping] and it made aspects oftime and construction incredibly transparent,but moreover, it showed me that there is, infact, something much greater than the parade itself. and there was more towhat i was looking for. what became clearis that despite what

i'm sure the league ofsamba schools would argue, the parade did not, in fact,start and stop at these two end points, but rathermarked a transition into a different kind ofparade, something much more architectural and urban. the parade became a loop thatbegan at the warehouse, moved through the city, paradedin the sambadrome, and made its way backto the warehouses through other parts of thecity, redefining itself

in the experienceof the spectator. here again the map is wrong. for the same reasons, ididn't bother to redraw it. there's no way that itcould ever be current. but i brought my map here,which has all the markings that i made actually there. so if anyone's interested tolook at it after the lecture, you're welcome to. but very importantin the drawing--

this drawing, notthat drawing-- is that it taught mesomething incredible, which was in thinking about the lengthof the sambadrome, the length of one schoolparading, and realized how long a line of floatsneeded to be for one night, because-- wait,let me start over, because this iskind of confusing. i was thinking about the lengthof the sambadrome, the length how long a line of floatsneeded to be for one night,

but because there are two nightsof special school parading, and each schoolhaving eight floats, i discovered that there'sone day where there's 96 floats moving through the city. and this became themission for 2015. my now strong andgrowing team and i set out to figure outthe float parcourse. apparently, there's anofficial map of the parcourse, but no one had acopy of it, not even

these officials standing on thestreet, moving traffic through. we even made a contactseemingly high up, the chief person who works underthe main director of the league of samba schools, andwhose job is literally to direct the floatsout of samba city. no surprise, hedidn't have a map. i wasn't sure he couldeven read a map when i put my precious mapand pen in front of him, so instead he got in our car,and drove the parcourse with us

to show us the route. but, of course, we onlymade it about 50% of the way before we realized we werebeing led back to samba city. and the truth is i wasn'tsure he knew beyond that. but this is the story oftrying to obtain information at every level. it just comes inthese fragments. i also learned by now,although i set out with questions that seemedlike the next logical step,

it doesn't alwayswork like this. i have to constantlyask new questions, and take advantage ofwhatever's in front of me, that the researchis more organic and is being gathered incumulative small doses. this trip i wasmuch more organized. i had a strong team, and iwas ready to try and start producing specific, but,of course, unknown images for the research.

i was accompaniedby hired driver, a few amazing academics. vera, from the universityfederal in rio de janeiro. silvio, another professor fromsao paulo architecture school. my photographer, anassistant, and bodyguard hired from a companycalled the bodyguard. we were planning on walkingthe parcourse, which meant a lot of dodgy areasand expensive equipment. but the driverwas happily parked

in our cheap parkingspot in samba city to collect us as we needed. unfortunately,the weather turned into a complete downpour. all the floats that weregetting ready to leave were being covered in tarps. and they sat and waitedand waited for the rain to let up before making theirjourney to the avenida vargas where they line up toenter the sambadrome.

the rain was a slightsetback, but didn't stop us from trying to find thefloats wherever they might be. first step out of sambacity, and already we were confrontedby a scene filled with the most incrediblejuxtapositions, the highly articulated but totallylow tech float, an old port warehouse, aglowing cruise ship, and a herd of camels orzebras moving down the road. seeing the floatswithin the architecture,

as part of the architecture,made me think of the portuguese translation for a floatwhich is [portuguese]. it means the allegorical car. it took a while beforei was able to work that translation out. every time i saidfloat, no one understood what i was talking about. although they sortof i knew i was referring to some sort ofcarnival related element.

when i learned theportuguese word for float, it reaffirmed itsparallel relationship to ephemeral architecture. an allegory, whichis a story that can be interpreted toreveal hidden meaning, is also a phenomenon muchgreater than the floats themselves. could carnival itself be aallegory for architecture? the float transforms the city.

its scale makes exteriorstreets into interior rooms of a street theater. where incredible momentslike these are seen, sidewalks turn intodressing rooms. i do a lot of work with anincredible marionette theater group called thephantom limb company, and in puppetry theater,there's a powerful ability for the viewer to feel a senseof participation and investment in the performance that isdifferent than typical theater.

the scale of the puppetsare forgiving in that you immediately forego a needto connect the performance to any scale or measurementthat would tie it back to what we understand to be reality. immediately, you are immersedin the story, the drama, and the new realityof the imaginary. similarly, the suspension ofbelief is obtained in carnival. but what is sostriking about this is that it is occurring at anarchitectural and urban scale.

not only are thefloats' physical size equivalent to thearchitectural surrounds, but presented against theexisting urban fabric, the floats move through thecity like mobile buildings. they're so big that they getstuck in between buildings like this one did. parts have to getdismantled on the spot, and keep in mindthat there could be 95 floats behind this one.

it is not uncommon to seefragments of float parts on the sidewalk or inthe middle of the street, layering old with new, real withfake, permanent with temporary. and to a brazilian,this may seem normal, the hyper-reality as anew kind of standard reality. but to an outsider, thisscale shifts are surreal. there's a differentkind of theatrical magic that you feel when in ablink, the imaginary world you just occupiedcomes apart with

one swift and unscripted move. here, the odds of seeingthe car costumes heading into a real gas station istotally real and yet totally not. the performance that occurs inthe assembly and disassembly of the floats isradically different than the actual parade. it reveals the truth about thelength of the parade, which extends beyond thesambadrome and out

towards the variouscommunities within the city. the length of theparade stretches back to the community centers,to the float warehouses, through the cityto the sambadrome, and back through thecity in an endless loop throughout the year. time, shifting at speed inaccordance to the performance. the allegorical carframes and reframes our point of viewand questions who

is performing-- thecarnavalesco or the pedestrian, the building or the float,the city or the procession? the constantly changingscene, the proximity to the stage, the materiality,the surreal relationships all tell a story. and while they arephysical signs showing how the city transformslike this street sign which is actually rotatedas is this traffic light or the wires beingcut, it is a hidden meaning

found inside the floatsbeyond their construction and to their communities. not inside the sambadrome,but outside on the streets. this is an interior ofa float, by the way. in the craft behindthe construction, and within an interiorityof the allegorical cars. this is also an interior space. i conclude theresearch contemplating if carnival is anallegory for architecture

how can these experiencesbegin to influence completely new ways of thinking about thecity and our built environment. and i've beenreally lucky to have had a few opportunitiesto begin testing some of these ideas inreal projects that i'm going to quickly share now. i've been really luckyto have been able, the uniqueopportunity to explore spatial and performativeideas from carnival in tandem

with the discoveriesthat i've made through this ongoingwheelwright research. only a few months afterreceiving the prize, i got a call from a womannamed claire tancons, who said she was going to be in newyork and hoped we could meet. claire is an independentcurator and an academic and truly themaestra of carnival. she's been researching thesubject for the last 10 plus years.

and since our firstmeeting, we've collaborated on two projects,and as i mentioned before, we're also about to embarkon yet a third project. this exhibition, titled "enmas: carnival and performance art of the caribbean,"which is currently on view at the contemporaryart center in new orleans commissioned nineperformances by artists whose work is embedded withina critical carnival dialogue. mas is short for masquerade,and synonymous with carnival

in the englishspeaking caribbean. a [? mas ?] [? man ?] isa carnival person similar to a carnavalesco in brazil. claire brought meinto this project as the exhibitiondesigner, which for me was anexciting opportunity to play out myrecent discoveries about the processionalas architecture or the processionalwithin architecture.

the design for thisshow delineated a very dark, almost blackperipheral processional path through the space, a path thatis linear and directional, and yet non-prescriptive. opposite the path werecentralized and brightly lit colorful three-sideddiorama-like rooms for each of the artists. by separating theprocessional from the artwork, i hoped to achieve a cleardistinction between the two

elements in orderfor the visitor to create their ownexperience through the space. as claire puts it, "enmas" considers a history of performance that doesnot take place on the stage or in the gallery, butrather in the streets, addressing not thefew, but the many. parallel to this,the perimeter path creates a kind ofstreet-like path that is both part of theshow and simultaneously

a place for personal orindependent direction. so you can begin to seethe path that wraps around and all the artistwork around the center. the challenge of tryingto create a carnival space was doubled by the challengeof creating an exhibition design for performance. how do you show a performancethat doesn't feel dead? one way to rectify this was toremove the factual information out of the artist'sareas in order

to try and create full scaledioramas that the visitor can walk into and experiencerather than being distracted by dates and geographies,material, colors, printers. all the factual informationwas placed on the perimeter wall adjacent to each artistand spotlights on the outer wall highlighted the text andhelped to draw the visitor through the darkness. so you can see that'sthe information, not for this person, butthe person next door.

and here, again, youcan see the spotlight in the distancefor another person, leading you throughthe darkness. not only is a dialoguecreated by the tension between the processionalpath and the display, but also by the relationshipsbetween each artists. early on, we looked atways to connect the works either by their geographiclocations-- the performances took place throughoutthe world--

or by the time of yearthe performances occurred. and the performances, inparticular, these performances took place at differenttimes of year, which were not always in syncwith the pre-lent carnival season. instead, the cyclicalpath reaffirm the fact that carnival is not boundto one location or one time, and by seeing newadjacencies between works emphasized a less consideredcyclical nature of carnival.

the visitor isinvited to retrace the steps of theperformances, and become an active participantin their reconstruction, redefining their ownpreconceptions of carnival, both as an art form and withina critical cultural dialogue. the next project beganagain, with claire who had been invited bycatherine [inaudible] from the tate modern to guestcurate a show in the turbine hall within theperformance department.

having had just come backfrom my first trip to rio, it was all fresh inmy mind when claire asked me to thinkabout the turbine hall as though it was the sambadrome. she asked, how couldi transform herzog and de meuron's architecturalspace for the turbine hall into a carnival spacereminiscent of oscar niemeyer's sambadrome in rio de janeiro. i should quickly mentionthat, as it turned out,

the turbine hall is actuallyconsidered an exterior space with a covered roof by thehealth and safety standards which we had toendlessly comply with, so that parallel relationshipwas actually quite on point. a seemingly simple idea,which took a lot of risks within the tate'sperformance department, unwavering support from claireas a guest curator, and me, of course, to convinceeveryone that it was not that difficult to do.

my installation,"canopy," became a monumental andunprecedented installation within theperformance department for the show titled, "up hilldown hall: an indoor carnival." in trinidad, there'sa beautiful tradition of revelers holdingcanopies over their heads as they parade. and my proposal became a kind ofdeconstructed canopy of ropes, suspended lengthwise, 550 feetlong, and seemingly hairline

thin pieces of rope,physically connected to the building's roof trusseson the east and west ends of the hall, andvisually connected the vast space with10 catenary curves. 5,550 feet of custom made thick,vibrant, pink-red red ropes hung from one end ofthe hall to the other. spliced together toform loops to connect to the overheadbuilding trusses. as a means to enhancethe processional nature

of the turbine hall, theropes enticed audience members through the uniquestreet size space and guided them alongside theperformers and participants. at the lowestpoint in the curve, the ropes split paths and woveabove and below the bridge to bring viewers insidethe space of "canopy." this is up close, butjust out of arm's reach, the ropes revealtheir massive size, and rough twisted texture.

above the central bridgewithin the space of "canopy." looking through the ropesbrought your eyes up through to the architectureof the turbine hall. back down below as the ropeswove through the colonnade. the event coincided with theweekend of the notting hill carnival. and as claireexplained, the show engaged with carnival asritual of resistance, festival of otherness in performanceart, and with the notting hill

carnival specificallyas a contested site from which to reflect on notionsof public space performance and participationall situated within the architecturalinstallation of "canopy." smaller handheld ropeswere choreographed with one of the artists,the performance artist, marlon griffith's piece, "noblack in the union jack." these ropes were used ascrowd control devices, and moved in harmony anddiscord with the revelers.

and the next day was thenotting hill carnival, and actually you see thehandheld ropes being used. held with tension,each rope bearer simulated a pointalong the line, and defined the spacefor the performance. shifts at eachpoint along the line redefine the performancearea, and help move the audience and performersfrom one end of the hall to the other.

looking down. and that is it. [applause] we'll take some timefor some questions. is that all right? yeah. do the first tier schoolshave any better shot at winning the championship thanthe second tier, historically? they don't competeagainst each other.

they only competewithin their own league. and actually, whoever scoresthe lowest, moves down, and whoever scores thehighest on that lower tier moves up, so there isopportunity to rotate. but it's very difficult. hi. thank you for your presentation. i was very, veryinterested when you suggested that carnival is likean allegory of architecture.

especially i waslistening to you about probablyyou are suggesting or not that someof the lessons has to be to experience ratherthan something else. dialogue, relationship,cyclical nature, and also really finding aspecific meaning. so i'm wondering if because itis also reflected in year round job that you are presenting. it's probably thisthe things that you

are going to try topush forward in part of your researchin the next time or what is next, in other words? i think the goal forthis upcoming year-- and it's probably goingto take another year, to be honest-- isgetting a little bit more into the community aspectsof carnival, the people. i don't feel like i havea firm grasp on that. but the way that theinformation has been unfolding

or has unfolded hasbeen really organic, like really horizontal, a lotof little bits, but not in mass. so i think if i can justcontinue to gather information horizontally eventually it'sgoing to build upward too. so it's a littlebit of everything, but with a particular focuson the community aspects. thanks, gia. that was a great presentation. i have a question thati think a lot of people

think about when theylook at carnival, which is that aesthetically, andcraft wise, and fabrication wise, it's all veryold world, traditional, and you'd said at the beginning,lots of beads and feathers, and you dig in deep, andthere's styrofoam, and metal. and of course, fromyour perspective, and from designer'sperspective, you're interested in where is theprogressiveness in architecture and material technology.

do you see any ofthat happening? and if not, then why is it thatthey're not exploring not just progressive ways of making,but also progressive imagery? or i mean, i know that it'sbased in a community aesthetic, and, of course, ithas a long tradition, and there's a fondness forthis kind of aesthetic, but the idea of art directionbeing conceptual as opposed to literal, whichyou'd also touched on. i'm going to try to answer this.

so there's one ortwo schools that are getting external sponsorship. you can't actuallyhave sponsorship on the floats themselves,but there's other ways to promote sponsorship. like the schoolsget these vip rooms that they cover withsponsorship or dinners. i don't know what it is exactly. but there are someschools that are

moving to gettingrussian choreographers and other internationalpeople involved. and so they'retaking the, i think they're the schools that aremuch more innovative in terms of technology. i don't have thatmany photos of it, and i haven't had access to thewarehouses of the schools that are doing that, but i knowthat a few are doing it. and there is a riff, i think, inwhether that's the right thing

to do or not, whether youstay with this tradition or you find ways toadvance it and change it with a changing world. and then i think there'sanother part to it where people like the tradition. i don't know. i mean, even some of the ideasthat i've been bringing up to people like even justtracking the floats in the city is not something anybodythinks twice about there.

for them, it's the parade. it's like when everythingcomes together, and that perfectimage of the carnival, that's what people like. and when you talk about thefloats moving through the city, it's like it's off the map. they don't even know whati'm asking for when i'm like, do they go down this road? they're like, they'reparading in the sambadrome.

no, no, but i want toknow how do they get back to the samba city? it's such a foreignquestion, i think. they're sort of focusedon what carnival is in a really traditional way. but i think it's changing. some of it. in new orleans--and you apparently have been doing somework in new orleans--

the routes of the paradesare very important. there is a lot of awareness ofthe routes and the different, and if there's been achange in the route. i just wonder maybe if you couldtalk a little bit about how new orleans practicesmardi gras in particular are similar and different fromwhat you've been working on in brazil. but also thinking about aplace where the activity is so vibrant and still really partof the culture, how successful,

if you want to do an exhibitionor a museum thing, where people can go outside and actuallyparticipate in the real living expression of someof this, how do you work with that so that themuseum so it's more successful? have you found waysthat that's successful? i can imagine peoplegoing like, why would i want to go see it in a museumwhen there's a parade happening this afternoon? i'm exaggerating a little, butthis tension between the museum

exhibition and the real life. you mean the tate show? any or thecontemporary art museum in a place like neworleans or anywhere where you're trying to do anexhibition about something that actually has a livingexpression in the culture, how successful ordo you have any, try to come to terms with howit can be successful or not? i don't know if that's.

i'm not totally sure iunderstand the second question, but in terms of themardi gras question, i think there's actually alot of parallels to how new orleans does carnival to rio. i'm pretty sure they compete. they have warehouses. they build all year long. they don't have the sambadrome. they do parade throughthe streets, which

is super exciting, and there'sa lot of other countries that i am hoping toget to at some point to see that as a comparison,like the actual parading through the city. beyond that, i don't knowthat much about new orleans. i have never been to mardi gras. and the focus of thewheelwright research has beeninternationally focused. and also, trying to keep myparticular focus on carnivals

where the floatsare architecturally scaled, because there's somany carnivals everywhere with really interestingand exciting floats. there's one in amsterdamthat happens, i think, the first weekend in septemberthat's kind of like the rose parade, but not exactly. it's a little bit more extreme,and that's also really cool. and i want to go to that, butit doesn't have the same sort of scale or parallelism.

so i've been trying tokeep my focus a little bit to really, really huge floats. i'm not really sure aboutthe second question. in a place where there is aliving tradition of parading and live music--mardi gras, carnival-- and if you're going to tryto do an exhibit about that. and it was a little bit ofthe show in new orleans that's there right now, as iwas looking at that, i was thinking how successfulis that likely to be in a place

where it's all around you andpotentially in public realm? i mean, you can juststumble on parades. are lots of peopleinterested in going to see a show aboutcarnival parading in a place where you can actuallyparticipate in it? i mean, i'm not sure i wouldimagine that they would be especially interestedin it, because they're so familiar with carnivalin their own city, and here they are seeingexamples of artists doing work,

not even necessarily traditionalkind of carnival related work, but whose work themselvesis taken from carnival, and done all over the world. i have a short question. i'm curious, becausei don't know so much about the carnival in brazil. i'm curious whereit was originated. what is the historyof the carnival? it somehow, the wayyou described it,

it reminded me offootball clubs that you have certain part of thecity that associate themself with a certain club. and i'm curious howit affects the dynamic within the communityin the city, and how the carnival,and the dynamic between the carnival and thecity, how to form one another. over the yearssince its inception, it has really kindof transformed

to become like a sport in a way. and while it still hasa lot of traditions and borrows from a lot of,that each school has a theme, and the themes are often somesort of historical person or it could also bea contemporary singer or something like that. you do you often see alot of visual imagery that talks a lot aboutcultural or historical aspects of carnival.

but i think in its inception--and i'm not a huge specialist on the full historyof carnival-- it is deep rooted in africanslavery in brazil and religion, and having to hidethrough carnival, hiding a lot oftribal traditions. i just have one question. all architecturerequires usually lots of capital behind it. and i'm curious in theproduction of these floats

how are the differentschools generating capital, and why has it not been co-optedby large scale sponsorship or how has there been devicesof resistance to keep it really in the community, and nottaken over by petrobras or whoever in brazil? well, petrobras actually givesall the schools a ton of money. the city gives theschools a lot of money. and the winners gettons, i don't know, like a million reais, 10 millionreais, like a ton of money.

and they generate money throughcostumes, selling costumes, and through a lotof participation. so the 2,000 or 3,000or however many people that are not part ofthe community, costumes are expensive. so that's one wayof generating money. and i think they have a lotof parties like every week or every year, something. they have parties.

there's all sorts of differentways to generate money. but it hasn't beenco-opted by sponsors like you'd see inthe macy's day parade where each float issponsored by so and so. no, they don'treally allow that. they don't allow thesponsorship to be shown. the images that yousaw of the dancers with the checkeredflags, the theme for that was a race car driver.

and so there was innuendosof-- not innuendos-- but hints at sponsorship fromdifferent gasoline companies, and so it was alittle controversial. but like i said before,you can get sponsorships, outside sponsorships,but it's just not shown in the actual parading. it's shown in other ways. [inaudible] troubleearlier this year. there are schools acceptingbig chunks of money,

and it actually impacts theirentire theme and art direction. and schools are now discoveringthis marketing model where they can sellthemselves as specialists. in fact, the school that wonthis year got a ton of money from a horribleafrican dictator. and the theme waskind of about him. [? so it was ?][? changing the ?] [? message. ?] right.

but it didn't directlysay, but it was definitely. it was amazing to me howmysterious the story became at some point, but it was likeas you were looking for reasons or trying to map theprocession through the city, and it seemed likeno one had the code, no one knew what it meant. and when you laid out thisidea of an allegorical cart, i think you couldreally theorize this, because the theoryof allegory is deep.

and part of it, at least, hasto do with allegories work with material, the code forwhich, the meaning of which has been lost. part of allegory isa kind of making do. i think [? cathy's ?]question about why doesn't technology progressin the practice of carnival, and there's somethingabout, in allegory, it's always a making do. it's independent of aninstrumentalized technology.

it's almost a kind of bricolagethat you use leftover pickup trucks and leftover machinerythat have functioned elsewhere in order to run the floats. and that itself is a kindof allegorical operation. but ultimately, i'mthinking of allegories that become covering,like a way of covering for certain traditionsthat are resilient, that came with slavery. ultimately, likefootball, starts off

as an allegory of somekind of battle, say, but ultimately, allegoriesbecome about themselves. they gain an autonomy,because they're so reflexive and reiterative. so ultimately, footballis about football. it's not really about, it'snot an allegory for battle. it's just about football. and i think there's somethingabout the carnival itself, it's just about carnival.

it's lost itsreligious attachments. it's lost its-- it's evenresist economic attachments in a certain way. and it just becomesself-replicating in a way, which iskind of fascinating. and i feel like i'mself-replicating right now. jorge, last question. i'm wondering whether, i'mlooking with great interest, because i think thereare many stories here.

and i just wantto ask you how far or not these is fromwhat you originally wanted to investigate. because, let's faceit, carnival in rio is a thing in itself,which has, as far as i'm concerned,probably by now very little to do withcarnival in brazil. the idea as much asit's very interesting that you build a street thatyou only use once a year

instead of doing itthrough the street, it tells you that we'redealing with something else. and then the millions ofdollars and the sponsorships and the cost, andthen we know there is carnival in brazil inother cities, as you say, you plan to go. my sense now is that thishas become another phenomenon frankly, which has, ofcourse, a great interest. but i wonder how you feelwhen you discover all these

behind the scenes, allthese money, a sambradrome where you go to paradein a street that is not a street anymore, and how thatmay compare with carnival still being performed and generatedin the communities with not this sponsorship, but just withthe will and effort of people in small communities. it just sounds to me that thisis a huge business related to tourism. we know that it is, in fact.

carnival in rio isa thing by itself. for sure, for sure. i think when i discovered thestart points and the endpoints of the parade, the projectreally transformed. it became clear that itreally, the interest was not about the actual paradein the sambadrome, although it was totally excitingto witness and be a part of, it was everything else. that interest has continued tounfold in so many other ways,

trying to chase these imagesand just find the floats, find the streets thatthey're going down, and catch them gettingstuck and dismantled, and having thesethings whiz by you. none of that is anythingto do with the tourists. you just don't find those photosin the newspapers and anywhere, and any sort ofgoogle interneting, you just don'tfind those photos. they're just notinterested in it.

to them, carnival is reallyabout this perfect picture. it's about thesecoffee table books, and so as soon as you startposing any of these questions to them, they have no ideawhat you're talking about. and so it's really like youjust have to go find it. the amount ofthese conversations asking a guy on the streetwho's helping monitor traffic, like do the floats,what time are they going to be over there,where do they go?

and it's like a 30minute conversation to not really get the answerthat you're looking for, because he has no ideawhat you're really asking. because it's justnot on their radar. i don't know if that fullyanswers the question, but, i think, on one hand,it is about the tourists, it is about this perfectpicture that you see down the sambadrome, but theinterest of the project at least has been discoveredthat it's not that.

it's everything aroundthat and everything that leads up to thateven throughout the year. so cathy, ben, new rules. now, wheelwright winner's haveto come and give two lectures. one after the end of theirresearch phase, but then the next one is how itaffects and the repercussions in your own work as you'rebeginning to show here. that's next year. so we'll see you then.

sounds good. see you then. thank you. well, see you in december.

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