my name is professor michio kaku. â i'm aprofessor of theoretical physics at the city university of new york and i specialize insomething called string theory. â i'm a physicist. â some people ask me the question, "what has physics done for me lately? â i mean, do iget better color television, do i get better internet reception with physics?" â and theanswer is yes. â you see, physics is at the very foundation of matter and energy. â wephysicists invented the laser beam, we invented the transistor. â we helped to create thefirst computer. â we helped to construct the internet. â we wrote the world wide web. â inaddition, we also helped to invent television, radio, radar, microwaves, not to mention mriscans, pet scans, x-rays. â in other words,
almost everything you see in your living room,almost everything you see in a modern hospital, at some point or other, can be traced to aphysicist. now, i got interested in physics when i wasa child. â when i was a child of eight, something happened to me that changed my life and iwanted to be part of this grand search for a theory of everything. â when i was eight,a great scientist had just died. â i still remember my elementary school teacher cominginto the room and announcing that the greatest scientist of our era has just passed away.â and that day, every newspaper published a picture of his desk. â the desk of alberteinstein. â and the caption said, i'll never forget, "the unfinished manuscript of thegreatest work of the greatest scientist of
our time." â and i said to myself, "why couldn'the finish it? â i mean, what's so hard? â it's a homework problem, right? â why didn't heask his mother? â why can't he finish this problem?" â so as a child of eight, i decidedto find out what was this problem. years later, i began to realize that it wasthe theory of everything, the unified field theory.â unified field theory: a theory of everythingâ an equation one inch long that would summarizeall the physical forces in the universe. â an equation like e=mcâ². â that equation is halfan inch long and that equation unlocks the secret of the stars. â why do the stars shine?â why does the galaxy light up? â why do we
have energy on the earth? â all of it tiedto an equation half an inch long. but then there was another thing that happenedto me when i was around eight years old. â i got hooked on the saturday morning tv shows.â in particular, flash gordon. â and i was hooked. â i mean, every saturday morning watchingprograms about alien from outer space, star ships, ray guns, invisibility shields, citiesin the sky, that was for me. â but after a few years, i began to notice something. â firstof all, i began to notice that well, i didn't have blond hair and blue eyes, i didn't havemuscles like flash gordon, but it was a scientist who made the series work. â in particular,a physicist. â he was the one who discovered the ray gun, the star ships. â he was theone who created the city in the sky. â he
was the one who created the invisibility shield.â and then i realized something else. â if you want to understand the future, you haveto understand physics. â physics is at the foundation of all the gadgetry, the wizardry,all the marvels of the technological age, all of it can be traced to the work of a physicist.â including computers, also biotechnology. â all of that can eventually traced down tophysics. â physics and the impossible most of science fiction is in fact well withinthe laws of physics, but possible within maybe 100 years. â and then we have type two impossibilities,impossibilities that may take 1,000 years or more. â that includes time travel, warpdrive, higher dimensions, portals through
space and time, star gates, worm holes. â that'stype two. â and then we have type three, and those are things which simply violate allthe known laws of physics, and they're very few of them. so in my life i've had two great passions.â first is to help complete einstein's dream of a theory of everything. â an equation oneinch long that would allow us to, "read the mind of god." â but the second passion of my life is to seethe future. you know, if you were to meet your grandparentsat the year 1900, they were dirt farmers back then. â they didn't live much beyond the ageof 40, on average. â long distance communication
in the year 1900 was yelling at your neighbor.â and yet, if they could see you now, with ipads and ipods and satellites and gps andlaser beams, how would they view you? â they would view you as a wizard or sorcerer. however, if we can now meet our grandkidsof the year 2100, how would we view them? â we would view them as gods, like in greekmythology. â zeus could control objects around him by pure thought. â materialize objectsjust by thinking. â and there're perks to being a greek god, venus had a perfect body,a timeless body. â and we are beginning now to unravel the genetics at the molecular level,of the aging process. â and then apollo, he had a chariot that he could ride across theheavens. â we will finally have that flying
horse, i mean, that, we will have that flyingcar that we've always wanted to have in our garage. â we will be able to create life formsthat don't exist today. and so in other words, if you want to seethe future, you have to understand physics, and you have to realize that by the year 2100,we will have the power of the gods. â to paraphrase arthur c. clark, "any sufficientlyadvanced technology is indistinguishable from divinity." so let's now begin our story. â â the history of physics the history of physics is the history of moderncivilization. â before isaac newton, before
galileo, we were shrouded with the mysteriesof superstition. â people believed in all sorts of different kinds of spirits and demons.â what made the planets move? â why do things interact with other things? â it was a mystery. so, back in the middle ages, for example,people read the works of aristotle. â and aristotle asked the question, "why do objectsmove toward the earth? â and that's because," he said, "objects yearn, yearn to be unitedwith the earth. â â and why do objects slow down when you put them in motion? â objectsin motion slow down because they get tired." â these are the works of aristotle, whichheld sway for almost 2,000 years until the beginning of modern physics with galileo andisaac newton.
so, when the ancients looked at the sky, thesky was full of mystery and wonder, and in the year 1066, the most important date onthe british calendar, there was a comet, a comet which sailed over the battlefield ofhastings. â it frightened the troops of king harold, and a young man from normandy, sweptinto england and defeated king harold at the battle of hastings, creating the modern britishmonarchy. â in fact, british history dates to 1066 with william the conqueror. but the question is, where did the comet comefrom? â what was this comet that mysteriously paved the way for the coming of the britishmonarchy? well, believe it or not, that same comet,the very same comet that initiated the british
monarchy, sailed over london once again in1682. â this time, everyone was asking the question, "where do comets come from? â dothey signal the death of the king? â why do we have messengers from heavens in the sky?"â well, one man dared to penetrate the secrets of comets, and that was isaac newton. â infact, when isaac newton was only 23 years old, he stumbled upon the universal forceof gravitation. according to one story, he was walking onhis estate in woolsthorpe, and he saw an apple fall. â and then isaac newton saw the moon,and then he asked the key question which helped to unlock the heavens. â if apples falls,does the moon also fall? â and the answer was, "yes." â and answer overturned thousandsof years of mystery and speculation about
the motions of the heavens. â the moon isin freefall, just like an apple. â the moon is constantly falling toward the earth. â itdoesn't hit the earth, because it spins around the earth, and the earth is round, but it'sacting under a force, a force of gravity. so newton immediately tried to work out themathematics and he realized that the mathematics of the 1600's was not sufficient to work outthe motion of a falling moon. â so what did isaac newton do? â when he was 23 years old,not only did he stumble upon the force of gravity, but he also created calculus. â infact, he created at the rate at which you learn it, when you are a freshman in college.â and why did he create calculus? â to calculate the motion of a falling moon. â the mathematicsof his age was incapable of calculating the
trajectories of objects moving under an inversesquare force field, and that's what isaac newton did. â he worked out the motion ofthe moon. â and then he realized that if he understands the moon, he also understandsthe motion of the planets in the solar system. â and isaac newton invented a new telescope.â it was the reflecting telescope and he was tracking the motion of this comet. well, it turns out that everyone was talkingabout the comet, including a rather wealthy englishman by the name of edmund haley. â everyonewas talking about the comet, so edmund haley, being a wealthy merchant, decided to makea trip to cambridge to talk to england's illustrious scientist, sir isaac newton. â well, edmundhaley asked newton, "what do you make of this
comet? â no one understands comets, they'rea mystery. â they've been fascinating people for centuries, for millennia, what are yourthoughts?" â and then, i paraphrase, but isaac newton said something like this, he said,"oh, that's easy. â that comet is moving at a perfect ellipse. â it's moving in an inversesquare force field. â i've been tracking it every day with my reflecting telescope andthe path of that comet conforms to my mathematics exactly." â and of course, we don't know whatedmund haley's reaction was, but i paraphrase, he must have said something like this, hesaid, "for god's sake, man, why don't you publish the greatest work in all of scientifichistory? â if correct, you have decoded the secret of the stars, the secret of the heavens.â nobody understands where comets come from."
â and then newton responded and said, "oh,well, it costs too much. â i mean, i'm not a wealthy man, it would cost too much to summarizethis calculus that i've invented and to work out all the motion of the stars." â and thenhaley must have said this, he must have said, "mr. newton, i am a wealthy man. â i havemade my fortune in commerce. â i will pay for the publication of the greatest scientificwork in any language." â and it was principia. â the principals, the mathematical principalsthat guide the heavens. â believe it or not, this is perhaps one ofthe most important works ever written by a human being in the 100,000 years since weevolved from africa. â realize that this book sets into motion a physics of the universe.â forces that control the motion of the planets,
forces which can be calculated, forces whichgovern the motion of cannonballs, rockets, pebbles, everything that moves, moves accordingto the laws of motion and the calculus of sir isaac newton. in fact, even today, when we launch our spaceprobes, we don't use einstein's equations, they only apply when you get near the speedof light or near a black hole. â we use newton's laws of gravity. â they are so precise thatwhen we shoot a space probe right past the rings of saturn, we use exactly the same equationsthat isaac newton unraveled in the 1600's. â that's why we have glorious photographsof the rings of saturn. â that's why we have fly-by's right past neptune. â that's whywe've been able to unravel the secrets of
the solar system, compliments of the lawsof motion of isaac newton. so what newton did was not only did he setinto motion the ability to calculate planets, he also set into motion a mechanics. â machinesnow operated upon well-defined laws. â newton's three laws of motion. â the first law of motionsays that objects in motion stay in motion forever, unless acted on by an outside force.â you see that in an ice skating rink. â you should a puck and it goes all the way downforever, unless acted upon by an outside force. â that's different from aristotle's law ofmotion. â aristotle said, "objects in motion eventually stop, because they get tired."â newton says, "objects in motion stay in motion forever." â sailing past pluto, unlessacted on by an outside force.
the second law of motion says, force is masstimes acceleration. â and that equation made possible the industrial revolution. â steamengines, locomotives, factories, machines, all of it due to the mechanics set into motionby isaac newton's second law of motion, force is equal to mass times acceleration. and then newton had a third law of motion.â for every action, there's an equal and opposite reaction, that's the law of rockets. â that'swhy we have rockets that can sail into outer space. â in fact, newton was the first humanwho could actually calculate how fast you have to run to jump to the moon. â that wasa number that mystified ancients. â how do you get to the moon? â can you jump to themoon? â well, newton could have calculated
that number, 25,000 miles per hour, that'sthe escape velocity of the earth, a number which could have been calculated by isaacnewton himself. so the lesson here is, when scientists unravelthe first force of the universe, gravity, that set into motion the industrial revolution.â a revolution which toppled the kings and queens of europe, which displaced feudalism,ushering in the modern age. â all because a 23-year-old gentleman looked up and askedthe question, "does the moon also fall?" so, rockets, the motion of planets, and evenbuildings in manhattan, all of them owe their existence to newton's laws of motion. you know, when i was a kid growing up in california,i would see pictures of the empire state building.
â and i said to myself, "how could that possiblybuild such a big building and not know that it's going to fall? â i mean, why doesn'tit fall? â they didn't build scale models of the thing, you couldn't have an empirestate building that big to test whether it's going to fall or not. â how did they knowahead of time that that building wouldn't fall? â and the answer is: â newton's lawsof motion. in fact, today, i teach newton's laws of motion,and you can actually calculate the forces on every single brick of the empire statebuilding. â every screw, every bolt, you can calculate precisely the tension on every singlefragment of the empire state building, using newton's second law of motion, force is masstimes acceleration.
that was the first force, when newton unraveledthe force of gravity, it ushered in the industrial revolution. â now, let's take a look at thesecond force, an even greater force which has touched all of our lives, and that isthe electromagnetic force. â ever since humans saw lightening bolts lightup the sky, ever since they were terrified by the sound of thunder, they've been asking,"do the gods propel lightening bolts and create thunder? â are they angry at us?" well, as time went by, scientists began torealize that the lightening bolts and the thunder can be duplicated on the earth. â thatwe can actually create many lightening bolts using electricity. â and with magnets, wecan also unleash a new kind of force, the
force of electricity and magnetism. but it wasn't until the 1800's that finallywe begin to unlock the second great force which rules the universe, the electromagneticforce. so this helped to usher in the age of discovery.â realize that before the compass, if you sailed the ocean blue, you would get lost.â with the compass knowing the position of the stars, you can then begin to navigateover hundreds, thousands of miles in the ocean. â so the discovery of compasses by the chinesehelped to usher in the age of discovery. and when people like michael faraday, whodid this, michael faraday would give christmas lectures in london, fascinating everyone fromadults to children. â and he would demonstrate
the incredible properties of electricity. some people, for example, ask a simple question.â if you're in a car or an airplane, you get hit by a lightening bolt, why don't you allget electrocuted? â why don't you all die? well, faraday answered the question. â hewould create a cage for children. â he would walk into this steel cage, electrify it, andhe wouldn't get electrocuted at all. â that's called a faraday cage and every time you walkinto â metal structure, you get shielded by this metal object and that's called a faradaycage. â well, what michael faraday did was, he helped to unleash the second great revolutionwith something calls faraday's law. â if i take a wire and i move a wire in a magneticfield, the magnetic field pushes the electrons
in the magnet, creating an electrical current.â that simple idea unleashed the electric revolution. â a moving wire in a magneticfield, has this electrons pushed, creating a current, and that's why we have hydro-electricgenerators. â that's why we have dams that can produce enormous amounts of power. â that'swhy people build nuclear power plants. â that's why we have room(?) right now. â all of itdue to the simple observation that a wire moving at a magnetic field, has its electronspushed, creating an electric current. on a very small scale, you use that in yourbicycle. â when you put a bicycle lamp on your bicycle, the turning of the wheel spinsa magnet. â the magnet then pushes electrons in a wire and that's why electricity lightsup in your bicycle lamp. â that's exactly
the same principal that lights up your housevia a hydroelectric dam. â so in other words, electricity and magnetism were unified intoa single force. â we once thought that electricity and magnetism were separate. â now we knowthey are in fact the same force. so if a moving magnet can create an electricfield, this means that a moving electric field can create a magnetic field. â but if theycan create each other, why can't they oscillate and create a wave? â so that moving electricfields create magnetic fields, create electric fields, create magnetic fields, infinitumto create a wave? â well, around the time of the american civilwar, a mathematical physicist, james clerk maxwell, calculated, using the work of faraday,the velocity of this wave, that electricity
turns to magnetism, turns to electricity,turns to magnetism, creating a wave, and he calculated the velocity of the wave. â andin one of the greatest works in the history of humanity, in one of the greatest breakthroughsof all time, james clerk maxwell calculated the velocity of this wave and found out itwas the velocity of light. â and then he made this incredible discovery, this is light.â that's what light is. â it doesn't by accident travel at the speed of electricity, it islight itself. if i have a light beam right here and i couldlook at it with a super-microscope, i would see oscillating electric fields, magneticfields, turning into each other creating a wave, and that wave is called light.
and the equations were written down by jamesclerk maxwell. â unfortunately, michael faraday himself did not have a formal education. â hecould not put into mathematical form his own work. â james clerk maxwell was a theoreticalphysicist, just like myself. â he wrote down the mathematical physics of oscillating electricfields and magnetic fields and they are called maxwell's equations. â these equations haveto be memorized by every physicist in grad school. â you cannot get your phd withoutmemorizing these equations. â every engineer who designs radio, radar, every engineer whodeals with radar and radio has to memorize these equations. â and so, if you go to berkley,where i got my phd, you can buy a t-shirt which says, "in the beginning god said, thefour-dimensional divergence of an antisymmetric,
second rank tensor equals zero, and therewas light, and it was good. â and on the seventh day he rested." â ladies and gentlemen, thisis the equation for light. in the same way that newton found a one inchequation that governed the motion of the planets, in the same way that maxwell discovered aone inch equation that unlocked the secret of light, we physicists today want to havea one inch equation that summarize all physical reality. well, michael faraday in his own lifetimewas heralded as a great scientist, and how many scientists do you know appear on money?â well, there he is, on the british 20-pound note. â so it's very rare that a scientistappears on a nation's currency, but so great
was a contribution of michael faraday thatthere he is on the 20-pound note. â â the electromagnetic revolutionâ and the nuclear age the consequences of the electromagnetic revolutiontouch all of us. â this is a picture of the earth from outer space. â look at this picture.â europe electrified, you can actually see the fruits of all of our efforts to createelectricity, to energize our lives, in one picture, seeing the earth from outer space.â so let's now talk about how faraday and maxwell's work touches your life as well. this is the internet. â the internet is asimple byproduct of the electromagnetic force.
â it's a solution of maxwell's equations andyou can see that where there is the internet, there is prosperity. â there is science, there'sentertainment, there's economic activity. â where there's no internet, there's poverty.â and in the future, the internet will be miniaturized and it will be placed in yourglasses. â your glasses will recognize people's faces and display their biography next tothe image as you talk to them, and then when they speak chinese to you, your glasses willtranslate chinese into english and print out subtitles right beneath their image. â soin the future, you will know exactly who you are talking to without even talking to them,and this means that at a cocktail party, if you're looking for a job, but you don't knowwho the heavy hitters are, in the future you
will know exactly who to suck up to. well, maybe you don't want to look like arefugee from star trek, kids of course love the electromagnetic force, they want to makeit fashionable. â fashion models will adopt the technology, kids will say, "what? â you'renot wired up? â you can't download videos and websites on your glasses? â what's wrongwith you?" so, the electromagnetic force can be beamedright into your eyes via laser beams, or through an eyepiece, or by using the glasses as ascreen. â these are internet glasses, this is the future of your home office, the futureof your home entertainment center. but let's say you don't like glasses. â let'ssay you don't wear glasses. â then how will
you access the internet, the electromagneticforce of the future? â you will do it in your contact lens. â you will blink and you willgo online. â and who will guy these internet contact lenses? â college students studyingfor final examinations. â they will blink and they will see all the answers appear intheir contact lens. who else will buy these internet contact lenses?â artists will buy them. â because by moving their hands, they will make the electromagneticforce turn into all the different kinds of artistic endeavors they engage in. â paintings,drawings, sculptures, all done by waving their hands. not to mention that architects will line upto get these things. â instead of having to
redesign a model every time they move something,they'll simply wave their hands and their buildings, their skyscrapers, will simplyrearrange themselves. tourists will line up for these glasses becausevia the electromagnetic force, you will see the roman empire resurrected as you walk throughthe streets of rome looking at the ruins. â so tourists will be able to resurrect allthe wonders of the past. and the military, hey, let's be blunt aboutthis. â the military sees the importance of this, the military is also perfecting theirversion of this, and i had a chance to take a film crew from the science channel, flydown to fort benning, georgia, and have a demonstration of the military's version. â youput on a helmet, there's an eyepiece on the
helmet, you flick the eyepiece down and ina half a second, you see now the entire battlefield on the internet right inside your eyepiece.â friendly forces, enemy forces, airplanes, artillery, all of it, the battlefield laidout for you right inside your lens. â all of it, compliments of faraday's electromagneticforce. and of course, you've seen this before, wherehave you seen this before? â this is the governor of california in a very bad mood. â this isthe terminator robot. â and how did the terminator robot view you? â when the terminator robotlooked at you, there were subtitles giving you the name of the person you were lookingat. â here is john connor located by internet contact lenses inside a robot. â so you'veseen this before. â this is called augmented
reality and in the future, that's where wewill spend most of our life. â we will spend most of our life in augmented reality. â whenwe blink, we can download any movie, any website, any piece of information. â we blink, we canrecognize any object, recognize any person, translate any language, this is the future,compliments of faraday's electromagnetic force. this is your living room, by the way, of thefuture. â you're going to be surrounded by the electromagnetic force, 360 degrees surroundedby wall screens and how will you decorate your room? â well, you'll decorate your roomwith images, cell phone screens, this is a typical cell phone of the future, and wallpaperof the future will be flexible. â it turns out that transistors can be made out of plastic.â and with plastic transistors come e-paper,
electronic paper. â paper that you can scrollright out of your cell phone, or for that matter, decorate your home. â this is thefuture of wallpaper. â in the future, chips will only cost a penny, because we can manufacturertinier and tinier transistors, and use faraday's electromagnetic force in plastic to createflexible paper. â so in the future, you will go to the wall and say, "change color. â idon't like this color, i don't like this design," so redecorating your house has never beenso simple. this will also affect your love life. â onfriday night, we all know what college students when there's no date, they get stone drunk.â in the future, they'll go to the wall, conjure up a wall screen, and say, "mirror, mirroron the wall, who's available tonight?" â the
wall screen will then contact all the otherwall screens of everyone else who's lonely that night, the wall screen knows the desiresthat you want, the kind of person you like to go out with, and bingo! â you have a date.â so in the future, this will also change your love life. and it'll also affect medicine. â you willhave faraday's electromagnetic force inside your body. â this is a pill. â it has a chipin it, the chip is smaller than an aspirin pill, it also has a tv camera, and a magnet.â when you swallow it, the magnet guides the camera, taking pictures of your stomach, yourintestines, because we all know what middle aged men fear the most, colonoscopies. â andthis gives new meaning for the expression,
intel inside. now, let's talk about the next great forceswhich rule the universe. â we talked about gravity, which allows us to calculate themotion of the planets. â the mechanics created by newton helped to unleash the industrialrevolution. â michael faraday worked out the electromagnetic force, which gave us the wondersof the electric age. â and now, let's talk about the nuclear age, the stars and the sun.â people have been fascinated by the sun, apollo was the god that strode across theheavens in his fiery chariot. â but hey, when you calculate how long coal or oil will burnlike the sun, you realize that in just a few hundred years, the sun would burn to a crisp.â so what could possibly last for billions
of years? â there must be a new force, a nuclearforce. einstein and others helped to unravel thesecret of the stars. â the nuclear force comes in two types, weak and strong. â both of themare involved in the creation of the sun. â the equation which allows for the liberation ofenergy is einstein's famous equation, e=mcâ². what einstein showed was that the faster youmove, the heavier you get. â so your weight is not a constant. â when you move very rapidly,you get heavier, something which we measure every day in the laboratory. â now, this meansthat the energy of motion transformed into mass, because you get heavier. â now, listencarefully. â the faster you move, the heavier you get. â which means that the energy ofmotion, "e" turns into "m", your mass. â and
the relationship between e and m is very simple,it takes one second to write it down on a sheet of paper, it is exactly e=mcâ². so the derivation of one of the greatest equationsof all time takes less than a page. â once you understand the basic principal behindrelativity, bingo! â the equation just falls right out. so the nuclear force helped to explain thesecret of the sun. â but it also created a pandora's box, because inside the nucleusof the atom, are particles. â and when you smash these particles, what do you get? â moreparticles. â and when you smash them, what do you get? â more particles. â in fact, weare drowning in subatomic particles, hundreds,
thousands of subatomic particles every timewe smash atoms. now, we smash atoms using something calledatom smashers, or particle accelerators. â i built my own particle accelerator when i wasin high school. â when i was in high school, i went to my mom one day and i said, "cani have permission to build a 2.3 million electron volt betatron particle accelerator in thegarage?" â and my mom said, "sure, why not? â and don't forget to take out the garbage." so i went to westinghouse, and as a high schoolkid, i asked for 400 pounds of transformer steel. â i asked for 22 miles of copper wire,because i wanted to create a 6 kilowatt, 10,000 goz magnetic field to energize my atom smasher.â with 22 miles of copper wire, how could
you wind it? â we did it on the high schoolfootball field. â i put 22 miles of copper wire on the goal post, gave it to my mother,she ran to the 50-yard line, unraveling the spool of wire, she gave it to my father, whothen ran to the goal post, and we wound 22 miles of copper wire on the high school footballfield. well, finally my atom smasher was ready. â itconsumed 6 kilowatts of power, that's every single ounce of power that my house coulddeliver. â i plugged my ears, i closed my eyes, i turned on the power, and i heard thishuge crackling sound as 6 kilowatts of power surged through my capacity bang. â and theni heard a pop, pop, pop sound as i blew out every single circuit breaker in the house.â the whole house was plunged in darkness.
â my poor mom, every time she'd come home,she would see the lights flicker and die. â and she must have wondered, "why couldn'ti have a son who plays baseball? â why can't he learn basketball? â and for god's sake,why can't he find a nice japanese girl? â i mean, why does he have to build these machinesin the garage?" well, these machines that i built in my garageearned the attention of a physicist. â and my career got a head start. â this physicisthelped to build the atomic bomb, and he arranged for me to get a scholarship to harvard. â heknew exactly what i was doing. â i didn't have to explain to him that i was experimentingwith anti-matter. â i was creating anti-electrons in my mom's garage and using atom smashersto eventually create beams of anti-matter,
he knew exactly what i was doing. â well, his name was edward teller, father ofthe hydrogen bomb. â but, hey, that's another story. antimatter is the opposite of matter, it hasthe opposite charge. â so an electron has negative charge, the positron, or anti-electron,has positive charge. â this means that you can now create anti-molecules and anti-atoms.â anti-hydrogen was made at cern outside geneva, switzerland, and also at fermi lab outsidechicago, where they have anti-electrons circulating around anti-protons. and in brookhaven national laboratory in longisland just recently, they detected anti-helium.
â we have two anti-protons with two anti-neutronsto create anti-helium. â so in principal, you can create anti-people, anti-universes,anti-everything. â for every piece of matter, there's a counterpart which is made out ofantimatter. â and when the two collide, by the way, it releases the greatest energy sourcein the universe. so the collision of matter and antimatterreleases energy, which may one day take us to the stars. â it is 100% conversion of matterto energy by einstein's equations, e=mcâ². the standard model so where we last left off, we were talkingabout the fact that inside the nucleus of the atom, we have particles upon particleswhen you smash them apart. â in the 1950's,
we were drowning in subatomic particles. â infact, j. robert oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, once made a statement. â hedeclared that the nobel prize in physics should go to the physicist who does not discovera new particle this year. â that's how many particles were being discovered. so let's talk about the particle zoo. â rightnow, we physicists have unlocked hundreds, thousands of subatomic particles and we'vebeen able to piece them together into a jigsaw puzzle. â it's an ugly jigsaw puzzle, it'shorrible, but hey, it works! â it describes all the subatomic particles. â but look atthis mess, it's called the standard model. â it has 36 quarks, 19 free parameters, 3generations of **** no rhyme, no reason, but
this is the most fundamental basis of realitythat we physicists have been able to construct. â billions of dollars, 20 nobel prizes havegone into the creation of the standard model, and it is the ugliest theory known to science,but it works. there's one piece missing, and that one piecethat's missing is called the higgs boson. â we expect to find it, but it's still damnugly. â we want to create a higher version of this theory. â and that theory, we think,is string theory. â string theory: a theory of everything? string theory is based on the simple ideathat all the four forces of the universe, gravity, the electromagnetic force, the twostrong forces, can be viewed as music. â music
of tiny, little rubber bands. â so if i hada super-microscope shown here and i could look right into the heart of an electron,what would i see? â i would see a vibrating rubber band. â and if i twang it, it turnsinto a neutrino. â i twang it again, it turns into a quark. â i twang it again, it turnsinto a yang-mills particle. â in fact, if i twang it enough times, i get thousands ofsubatomic particles that have been catalogued patiently by physicists. so these are not ordinary strings, however.â they're not ordinary piano strings or violin strings, they are super strings. â they vibratein hyperspace, a dimension beyond physical comprehension. â 10, maybe 11 dimensionalhyperspace. â the world i live in, as a theoretical
physicist, is not quite the world that youlive in. â i live in a world that is 11 dimensional. â all the equations i write down, all thephysical pictures that i construct are 11 dimensional, existing in hyperspace. â weknow that physical reality is three dimensional. â we have length, width, height. â einsteingives us time as a fourth dimension. â but we physicists believe that the instant ofthe big bang, the universe was not 3 dimensional, was not 4 dimensional, it was 11 dimensional. so string theory says that all subatomic particlesof the universe are nothing but musical notes. â a, b-flat, c-sharp, correspond to electrons,neutrinos, quarks, and what have you. â therefore, physics is nothing but the laws of harmonyof these strings. â chemistry is nothing but
the melodies we can play on these strings.â the universe is a symphony of strings and the mind of god, the mind of god that einsteineloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life, for the first time in history,we now have a candidate for the mind of god. â it is cosmic music resonating through 11dimensional hyperspace. â that is the mind of god. and how will we test it? â how will we knowthat the universe is 10 or 11 dimensional? â because we are building a machine. â thebiggest machine of science ever built in the history of the human race, outside geneva,switzerland. â it is the large hadron collider. â and no matter how big it is, however, itis a pea shooter compared to an even bigger
machine that we physicists wanted to buildoutside dallas, texas. â ronald reagan wanted to big the super collider, a much bigger machine,outside dallas, texas, however, congress cancelled it in 1993. â congress gave us a billion dollarsto dig a huge hole, a smaller version shown here. â congress cancelled our machine in1993, and then gave us a second billion dollars to fill up the hole. â two billion dollarsto dig a hole and to fill it up. â i can't think of anything more stupid than that forthe united states congress. â but what happened? in 1993, just before the final vote was taken,a congressman asked a physicist, "will we find god with your machine? â if so, i willvote for it." â the entire fate of an $11 billion machine rested on this last finalquestion. â will we find god with your machine?
â well, the physicist didn't know what tosay, so he said, "we will find the higgs boson." â well, you could almost hear all the jawshit the floor on the united states congress. â everyone was saying, "$11 billion for anothergod darned subatomic particle!" â and the machine was cancelled the next day. ever since then, we physicists have been playingthat scene over and over and over in our minds. â how should we have answered that question?â i don't know. â but i would've answered it differently. â i would've said this, iwould've said, "this machine, the super collider, will take us as close as humanly possibleto the deity's greatest creation, genesis. â this is a genesis machine. â it will celebratethe greatest moment in the history of the
universe, it's birth." â instead we said,"higgs boson," and our machine was cancelled. â sorry about that. so the higgs boson, we think, will be createdby the large hadron collider. â a tube 17 miles in circumference with two beams of proteinscirculating in opposite directions, then slamming together right here, creating a shower ofparticles. â and among these particles, we hope to find the higgs boson. â but not onlythat, we hope to find particles even beyond the higgs boson. â the next set of particlesbeyond the higgs boson are sparticles, super particles, nothing but higher vibrations,higher musical notes of a vibrating string. â
and what else could we do? â we can also unlockthe secrets of the big bang. â you see, einstein's equations break down at the instant of thebig bang at the center of a black hole. â the two most interesting places in the universeare beyond our reach using einstein's equations, we need a higher theory, and that's wherestring theory comes in. â string theory takes you before the big bang, before genesis itself.â and what does string theory say? â it says that there is a multi-verse of universes. where did the big bang come from? â well,einstein's equations give us this compelling picture that we are like insects on a soapbubble. â a gigantic soap bubble just expanding and we are trapped like flies on fly paper,we can't escape the soap bubble. â and that's
called the big bang theory. string theory says there should be other bubblesout there in a multi-verse of bubbles. â when two universes collide, it can form anotheruniverse. â when a universe splits in half, it can create two universes, and that, wethink, is the big bang. â the big bang is caused either by the collision of universesor by the fusioning of universes. string theory, we think, is a theory of everything.â it unites all forces, gravity, the electromagnetic force, the weak and the strong force intoone comprehensive picture and that pyridine is music. â that all the forces of the universeare nothing but different musical notes on a vibrating string, but it also gives us apicture of the universe itself. â that the
universe is a soap bubble, like what einsteinpredicted, but there are other soap bubbles out there. â and when these soap bubbles collide,when these soap bubbles fission, it creates a violent burst of energy which we think couldbe the big bang. now, string theory, in turn, can be summarizedin an equation about an inch long, that's my equation. â that's just called string fieldtheory. â it is an equation that allows you to summarize all the wondrous properties ofstring theory into one equation. if you were to summarize the march of physicsover the last 10,000 years, it would be the distillation of the laws of nature into fourfundamental forces. â gravity, electricity and magnetism, and the two nuclear forces.â but then the question is, is there a fifth
force? â â a fifth force?â a force beyond the forces that we can measurein the laboratory. â and believe it or not, there are physicists who have actually lookedvery carefully for a fifth force. â some people think maybe it's psychic phenomena. â maybeit's telepathy. â maybe it's something called sci-power. â maybe it's the power of the mind,maybe consciousness. well, i'm a physicist. â we believe in testingtheories to make sure that they are falsifiable and reproducible. â we want to make sure thaton demand, your theory works every single time without exception. â and if your theoryfails one time, it's wrong. â in other words,
einstein's theory has to work every singletime without exception. â one time einstein's theory is proven to be wrong, the whole theoryis wrong. well, so far, we can reproduce these fourphysical theories, but a fifth theory cannot be reproduced, we've looked for it. â somepeople think that maybe a fifth force may be short range, like not over the nucleusof the atom, but ranging over several feet, so we've tried. â we've looked for a gravitationalforce of some sort that acts not over stars and galaxies, not over nuclear distances,but over these distances. â and we can't find any. today, however, we have membranes, and wedon't yet understand how membranes fit into
this picture, but we think our universe isa membrane of some sort. â so strings can coexist with membranes. then the question is, if there are other dimensions,if there are other universes, can we go between universes? â well, that of course is veryhard, however, alice in wonderland gives us a possibility that maybe one day we mightcreate a worm hole between universes. â this is a worm hole. â think of taking a sheetof paper and putting two dots on it. â the shortest distance between two points is astraight line. â but if i can fold that sheet of paper, then perhaps i can create a shortcut.â a shortcut through space and time. â called a worm hole, this is a genuine solution ofeinstein's equations. â we can actually see
this in string theory. â the question is,how practical is it to go through one of these things. â we don't know. â in fact, there'sa debate among physicists today, steven hawking, many physicists are jumping into the game,trying to figure out whether it's physically possible to go through a worm hole. because if you could, then you might be ableto use this as a time machine. â since string theory is a theory of everything, it's alsoa theory of time. â and time machines aren't allowed in einstein's equations, but to buildone is extremely difficult. â far more energy is required than a simple delorean with plutonium.â but then the question is, if you go backwards in time and meet your teenage mother beforeyou are born and she falls in love with you,
how can you be born if your teenage motherjust fell in love with you? â or for that matter, if you think you're so smart, here'sthe mother of all time travel stories, and let's see whether you're smart enough to figurethis one out. â so listen carefully. the year is now 1945, it's a dark and stormynight. â a drifter comes in carrying a baby girl in a basket that he lays at the doorstepof an orphanage. â well, the next day, the nuns at this orphanage pick up this baby girl.â they don't know where she came from, they don't know what to call her, so they callher jane. â and jane grows up in the orphanage wondering, "who is my mother, my father, whois my family, where did i come from?" â well, when jane is 19, she turns into this beautifulyoung girl and she falls in love. â a handsome
drifter comes into her life, sweeps her offher feet, but it was not meant to be. â they quarrel and the drifter stomps out never tobe seen again. â but it is a very sad story. â jane is left pregnant. â she's rushed tothe hospital nine months later, delivers a beautiful baby girl, but that very same night,somebody smashes open the window of the hospital and steals her precious baby girl, and it'seven worse than this. â it turns out that jane is bleeding. â she's about to die. â she'snot normal. â the doctors have to change jane into jim in an emergency operation. â well, jim wakes up the next day with a hugeheadache, left as a young baby girl at an orphanage, no father, no mother, lover getsher pregnant, leaves her abandoned, someone
steals her baby girl, and now she's not evenjane any more, she's jim. â well, jim gets into bar room fist fights every time someonesays, "jim, where did you come from anyway? â who's your mother, your father, your brother,your sister, who are you, jim?" â well, jim becomes a bar room drunk. â but then one day,a bartender comes up to him and he says, "jim, jim, wake up. â i'm really a time traveler.â come into my machine and let us solve the mystery of who is jane/jim." â so they spinthe dial, they go way back into the past and then poor jim is left somewhere in the past,he doesn't know where. â but then he meets this beautiful 19-year-old girl and it's loveat first sight. â but, you know, it was not meant to be. â they quarrel and jim stompsoff, but then he finds out through the grapevine
that his girlfriend is pregnant and he realizes,"oh, my god, history is repeating itself. â i want to make sure that my kid gets thebest education possible." so jim goes to the hospital nine months later,smashes the hospital window, kidnaps his own precious baby girl, and he goes back intothe time machine. â and they go back, back, way back into the past until it is 1945. â jimcomes in from the darkness carrying his precious baby girl that he drops off at an orphanage.â well, the next day, the nuns at the orphanage see this baby girl, they don't know what elseto call her, so they call her jane. â and jane grows up wondering, "who is my mother,my father, my family? â i was left as a foundling on the doorstep of this orphanage."
well, jim finally says to himself, you know,time traveling is kind of nice. â i'm going to stop being this drunk and i'm going todo something constructive. â i'm going to join the time travelers corp. â so jim hasmany exploits, heroic exploits in the annuls of time. â but now jim is an old man, he'san old man about to retire. â so on his retirement day, they give him a gold watch. â but thenjim asks for permission for one final mission in time. â and that is to go back in timeto meet a certain bar room drunk who gets into fist fights any time someone says, "whoare you, jim? â who is your mother? â your father? â your brother, your sister, youraunt, your uncle, where did you come from?" well, if you get a sheet of paper and youdraw the family history of jane, what you
find out is jane is a family tree unto herself.â she is her own mother, her own father, her own son, her own granddaughter, her own great-great-greatgrandfather, her own great-great-great grandmother. â she's a family tree unto herself. â and can you imagine what happens if they havea family get together and they have a food fight and someone says, "you did this to me!"â "no, you did that to yourself." â and they would all be right. â because if time travelis possible, it means you can be your own mother or your own father. but what does string theory say about this?â that's science fiction. â what does string theory say about this. â well, string theorysays, like einstein, that time is a river.
â we're all swept up in the river of time.â time can speed up and slow down. â time beats faster on the moon than it does on theearth. â time beats slower on jupiter than it does on the earth. â and we measure itwith your cell phone. â your cell phone picks up gps signals from satellites. â satellitesbeep at different rates than your cell phone and your cell phone has to compensate forthat. â so your cell phone has to include einstein's theory of general relativity inits computer software and hardware. so to sum up, einstein's equations allow fortime travel. â time is a river. â the river of time can fork into two rivers and if theriver of time forks into two rivers, that answers all the time travel paradoxes. â becauseif you hop into a time machine, go backwards
in time, you cannot change your own past,you're changing someone else's past in another time stream. â so the river of time forksinto two rivers and there are no paradoxes in time travel if you start to use somethingcalled string theory. but then the question is, what would it taketo one day perhaps go from one universe to another? â you know, trillions of years fromnow, the universe is going to get awfully cold. â we think the universe is headed fora big freeze. â trillions of years from now, all the stars will blink out, they'll be deadstars, neutron stars, black holes. â stars will cease to twinkle, the universe will beso big, it'll be very cold. â at that point, all intelligent life in the universe mustdie. â the laws of physics are a death warrant
to all intelligent life. â the universe musteventually approach the heat death predicted by physicists years ago. â but there's oneloophole. â only one. â there's only one way to escape the death of the universe, and thatis leave the universe. â well, you're now of course entering the realm of science fiction,but at least we now have equations. â the equations of string theory, which will allowus to calculate if it is possible to go through a worm hole to go to another universe whereit's warmer and perhaps we can start all over again. â because perhaps one day we will beable to play with entire universes. â string theory is a theory of an entire universe.â therefore when you solve the equations of string theory, you find entire universes emergingfrom string theory.
now, then people ask the question, "when?â when might we have this cosmic power?" â and the answer is, it depends on your energy.â when we physicists look at outer space for energy, we realize that any advanced civilizationwould eventually find three sources of energy. â planets, stars, and galaxies. â so a typeone civilization is planetary. â they consume planetary energy. â they control the weather.â they control earthquakes, they control volcanoes. â anything planetary they control. â sortof like buck rogers or flash gordon. a type two civilization is stellar. â theycontrol the energy output of an entire star, like star trek and the federation of planets.â that's a very typical type two civilization. then there's type three, galactic. â likethe empire of the empire strikes back.. â they
roam the galactic space lanes. â now, whatis the energy of string theory? â the energy of string theory is called the plank energy.â it is 10 to the 19 billion electron volts. â that's the universe i live in. â i livein 11 dimensions, that's the dimensions that i work in, that's the dimensions that i dreamabout, and the energy scale of theory is the plank energy. â 10 to the 19 billion electronvolts, that's a quadrillion times more powerful than the large hadron collider. â that energyputs you in type three. â once we have the power of galaxies, the power of star systems,we will have the power of the plank energy, perhaps even maybe the ability to bend spaceand time into a pretzel. â what lies beyond that?
one day i gave a lecture at the old planetariumthere, and a little pesky 10-year-old boy comes up to me, and he yanks on my pants andhe says, "professor, you're wrong. â there's type four." â so i look down at this peskylittle kid, and i said to him, "shut up, kid. â why don't you play in traffic, there's anice intersection over there, why don't you go there?" â oh, no, the kid didn't go, hekept yanking on my pants and he kept saying, "professor, you're wrong, there's type four."â and i said, "look, kid, in the universe, we have planets, stars, and galaxies, thereforeany intelligent civilization will have planetary energy, stellar energy, and galactic energy.â that's all there is. â there's no type four." â and then the kid kept yanking on my pantsagain. â and he kept saying, "professor, you're
wrong. â there is something beyond type three,and that is the continuum." â and then i said to myself, "hmm, maybe he's on to something,the continuum, from star trek. â on star trek, there's something called the q. â the q arebeyond galactic, they are on the level of gods. â and in fact, they get their energyfrom the continuum. â what is the continuum? â dark energy.â dark energy we physicists in the last ten years have discovereda new energy source, larger than the galaxy itself. â dark energy. â realized in our universetoday, 73% of our universe, the matter energy, 73% is in the form of dark energy. â the energyof nothing. â that's what's blowing the galaxies
farther and farther apart. â that's the energyof the big bang itself. â kids ask the question, if the universe banged, then what made itbang? â and the answer is dark energy. â 73% of the universe's energy is dark energy. â 23%is dark matter. â dark matter is invisible matter, if i held it in my hand, it wouldgo right through my hand. â it holds the galaxy together. â 23% of the universe is dark matter.â stars made out of hydrogen and helium makeup 4% of the universe. and then what about us? â where do we arroganthumans, numero uno, where do we fit into the larger scheme of things? â we make .03% ofthe universe. â let me repeat that again. â we, the higher elements, we, made out ofoxygen, carbon, nitrogen, tungsten, iron,
we make up .03% of the universe. â in otherwords, we are the exception. â the universe is mainly made out of dark energy. â the universeis mainly made out of dark matter. â overwhelming the stars, overwhelming the galaxies, in fact,and we only make up .03% of the universe. the future of physics is you so in other words, for you young aspiringphysicists out there in the audience, you may be saying to yourself right now, why shouldi go into physics? â because you guys already have a candidate for the unified field theory,right? â just realize that every single physics text book is wrong. â every single physicstext book on the earth says that the universe is mainly made out of atoms, right? â thereit is. â the universe is mainly made out of
atoms. â wrong. in the last ten years, we have come to therealization that most of the universe is dark and there's a whole shelf full of nobel prizesfor the young people who can figure out the secret of dark matter and dark energy. â i should also point out that there's a moralitytale. â dark matter was first predicted by a woman, vera reuben, but she was ignoredfor 40 years because it was so incredible. â dark matter, invisible matter, holding thegalaxies apart? â and that's a very sad story in my field, theoretical physics, becausewomen often times are slighted and not given credit. â the most famous example of this,by the way, was the case of jocelyn bell.
â she was a young phd student in astronomyand she looked up in the heavens and a star was blinking at her. â stars don't blink.â they twinkle because of imperfections in the atmosphere, but they don't blink likethat. â i mean, they don't blink regularly. â she catalogued this day after day, weekafter week, month after month. â and then she made the biggest mistake of her life,she told her thesis adviser. well, when it was time to write the paper,whose name came first? â his name came first. â he was the big shot, she was a lowly femalegrad student. â when it was time to give talks around the world, who gave the talks? â hedid. â and when it was time to win the nobel prize in physics for the discovery of thepulsar, who won the nobel prize in physics?
â he did. â not her. â what's the lesson here? â the lesson is, ifyou in the audience ever discover something importantâ€”tell me first. â i mean, i'm agenerous man. â i can find enough money for a subway token for you, i'll be the big shotphysicist, i'll put my name first and hey, a subway token isn't so bad as a consolationprize. the point i'm raising is, there's a wholeshelf full of nobel prizes for those people who can discover what is making up 73% ofthe universe, dark energy. â and what is dark matter, which makes up 23% of the universe?â no one knows. â string theory gives us a clue, but there's no definitive answer.
the thing about physics, or even science,that really intrigues me the most, is to find the most fundamental basis for everything.â rather than trying to massage a theory or make a theory prettier, why not find out whyit works, what makes it tick? â for example, let me give you something from the area ofmedicine. â i was reading an article once about breast cancer recently in the new yorktimes, and it mentioned a figure which i found absolutely startling. â and that is, that95% of the money going to breast cancer research does not go to curing breast cancer at all.â it simply goes to massaging breast cancer, maintaining the established quo, polishingup existing therapies rather than curing it at the fundamental level. â you know, wheni was a kid, i still remember, people were
talking about iron lungs. â polio was thishorrible disease and there were people saying that one day we will have thousands of ironlungs over the united states. â whole villages of iron lungs, because we have to manage polio.â but you know something? â jonas salk went out there and cured the damn thing. â todaywe have no iron lungs, but we have something very similar. â we have a cancer establishmentthat puts so much money in massaging cancer and only 5% of that money is earmarked toactually curing it. so that's the analogy in biology. â in physics,what we want is the fundamental theory that drives all these subatomic particles. â it'shard to believe that nature could be so malicious to create a universe at the fundamental levelbased on thousands of subatomic particles
and even the standard model is ugly. â 36quarks, 19 free parameters that you can adjust, 3 generations, xerox copies of each other,3 redundant copies of quarks. â why should nature be so redundant to create a fundamentaltheory that is not elegant, not beautiful, not simple, but horrible, but it works. being a physicist, we also have some insightinto the energy picture of the future. â first of all, solar power is very nice, but it'stwice as expensive as fossil fuel technology on average. â therefore, if you bet the storeon solar power, you're going to go bankrupt. â however, solar, wind, renewable technologiesare going down in price every year. â fossil fuels are rising in price on average everyyear and the two curves should cross in about
10 years time. â we don't know for sure, butwhen that happens, there's going to be a see change. â it means that it will be economicallyadvantageous to go with solar, hydrogen, renewable technology. for example, in europe today, investors arebuying up rights to the sahara desert. â not because they want to put solar panels in thedesert, it's too soon for that. â but in 10 years time, when solar does become cheaper,more efficient, with tax credits and mass production, in 10 years time, it's too late.â everyone will have rights to desert areas and put solar panels there. â so the timeto invest in solar is sometime between now, when it's still too expensive, and 10 yearsfrom now when it's too late. â you want to
get your foot in the door. and then beyond that, fusion power becomesa possibility. â the europeans are bidding the store on the iter fusion reactor basedin southern france, 10 billion euros from the european union, also russia, the unitedstates, japan, and korea, to create the first fusion reactor in southern france and in 10more years, by 2030, we hope to make it commercial. â so in 10 years, we could be entering thesolar age, in 20 years, we'll enter the solar fusion age, when sea water, sea water is thebasic ingredient for a fusion plant. now, what about fission power? â fission poweris the power of uranium. â fusion power is the power of the stars, the power of hydrogen.â uranium has a problem. â when you split
uranium, you create nuclear of waste, tonsof nuclear waste. â that nuclear waste is hot. â that heat is what's causing the meltdownin japan even as we speak. â in fact, it may take 30 years, according to the hitachi corporation,to bring that raging accident finally under control. â 30 years is one of our best projectionsas to when we can finally put that reactor accident to rest. fission power has problems. â first, meltdowns.â second, nuclear waste. â where do we put it? â president barack obama has decided tocancel the yucca mountains nuclear waste repository. â so at the present time, the united statesis suffering from a massive case of nuclear constipation. â nuclear waste is banking upat every single nuclear site. â 104 of them
in the united states with nowhere to put thenuclear waste. now, my attitude is, it takes about 10 yearsto get a new nuclear power plant to completion. â in that 10 years time, solar becomes verycompetitive. â so the economic climate changes. â now it may seem to be economical to builda nuclear power plant, but in 10 years time, solar becomes very competitive with fossilfuels, in which case, nuclear energy may be an idea whose time has come and gone. some people ask the question, "professor,if you're finding the theory of everything, then what's in it for me? â everything isgone, right?" â wrong. â there's several ways you can look at thisquestion. â think of looking at a chess game
for the first time in your life and you watchthe two players move the chess pieces. â if you've never played chess all your life, youcan figure out the rules just by looking at the game. â how pawns move, how kings move,and so after a while, you figure out all the moves. â but does that make you a grand master?â no. â finding out the rules of chess is like finding the unified field theory. â wenow know how particles move, we now know how every object in the universe moves. â we knowall the moves of matter and energy. â that's the unified field theory. â so it's like figuringout the rules of chess, but does that make you a grand master? â does that make you amaster of gravity? â a master of electricity and magnetism? â a master of the nuclear forces?â no.
there's another way to look at this. â darkmatter, dark energy, have been discovered in the last ten years, which have forced arevision in every single physics on the planet earth. â this is embarrassing. â because wenow realize the most of the universe is dark and we're clueless as to what they reallyare. â now, we have some hints, string theory says that dark matter may be a higher vibrationof the string called sparticle. â a sparticle is a super particle, but is not proven. â darkenergy, even string theory, has a hard time explaining the magnitude of dark energy. so once we understand dark energy and darkmatter, we'll understand the big bang. â because what is driving the big bang, but dark energy.â so once we understand dark matter, dark
energy, we'll understand the birth of theuniverse and the death of the universe. i'm a theoretical physicist. â being a theoreticalphysicist, my laboratory is my pencil. â i can carry it on the bus, on the airplane,the train. â my laboratory is my pencil. and on one final note, let me say the following.â that ever since i was a child, my role model was albert einstein and i had the rare privilegeof speaking at the einstein centennial several years ago. â and my favorite einstein storyis this: â when einstein was an old man, he was tired of giving the same talk over andover and over again. â so one day his chauffeur came up to him and he said, "professor, i'mreally a part time actor. â i've heard your speech so many times, i've memorized it. â sowhy don't we switch places? â i will put on
a mustache, i will put on a beard, i mean,i will put on a wig. â i'll be the great einstein, and you can be my chauffeur." â well, einsteinloved the joke, so they switched places and this worked famously until one day, a mathematicianin the back asked a very difficult question. â and then einstein thought, "oh, the gameis up." â but then the chauffeur said, "that question is so elementary that even my chauffeurhere can answer it for you." let me give some advice to you, if you area young physicist, perhaps just getting out of high school, you have dreams of being einstein,of dreams of working on string theory and stuff like that. â and then you hit freshmanphysics. â let me blunt. â we physicists flunk most students taking elementary physics andwe're more or less encouraged to do so by
the engineering department. â we don't wantto train engineers who make bridges that fall down. â we don't want to create engineersthat create skyscrapers that fall over. â there's a bottom line. â you have to know the lawsof mechanics. â so before you can work with the laws of einstein, you have to work withthe laws of friction, levers, pulleys and gears. so if you're a young physicist, graduatingfrom high school with stars in your eyes and you encounter freshman physics for the firsttime, take heart, if you have a rough time, that's the way it is. thank you very much.