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Futuristic Jet Fighter Design

throughout human history people have always worked to harnesspower to better their lives early on our forbearers developed rudimentary machines driven by windanimals and water to run these devices thesemachines were state-of-the-art for their time but as with all thingsnew ideas began taking shape to change the landscape help our wasdeveloped eventually machines field by gas steam diesel incall became the norm

an art to this day still the primary way resupply our buildings cars and overall lives and the demand is not slowing down in recent years power usage hasincreased exponential cleaners have been looking at newtechnologies and ideas helping us out of the 20th century powergeneration and into the future not surprisingly nasa personnel apart at the core waiver

engineers and researchers who arelooking at ways to change how we develop our while some have their ideas will haveher applications the book love their studyis finding ways to improve how power is used and developed aboard space craft this work will helpus move past our current methods powergeneration in space allowing new and exciting technologiesto come online could be disruptive force we need toadvance

spaceflight coming up on this episode ofmass attacks we will follow researchers from massesspace technology mission directorate game-changing development program asthey attempt to transform the way spacecraft the future our power we willsee how these changes can increase beans be more efficient be a fraction of thesize and potentially cost much less thanconventional methods and with these new technologies in placethey could have the potential to move us even closer to goal exploring deeper parts of space

since the beginning spaceflight throughtoday there have been huge improvement in the technology surrounding vehicles travel in space as an example the flight computers that can humans tothe moon in the sixties and seventies for state-of-the-art them back leftprocessing power than a cell phone up today in the more than forty yearssince apollo there have been enormous changes inevery aspect have space flight not the least of which is in the fieldsof power and propulsion predicted more

three often these fields getovershadowed by flashing mission hardware and instruments but without these core elements in placeno mission never make it off the ground becausepower and propulsion are so important nasa's space technology missiondirectorate is taking steps to continue improving our understanding by insuring that next-generationtechnologies work as expected and help move us past our currentmethods have traveled they have broken power and propulsion upinto two major categories:

the first is in the field called inspace propulsion which refers to the development andtesting of different types of thrusters that are used in space of the seven areas called space power which studies how power is generated onfor a bit such as solar arrays for example andalso how we store energy with batteries andfuel cells to understand what future missions willbe like we first have to look at the spaceenvironment and how missions at the past

have worked because earth's gravity and atmosphericconditions still needs be powerful rocket engines that burn chemical propellant to get usinto space once in space current missions and those atthe past nixon oxidizer with the chemical propellant for a short but powerful pushed for thegiven destination this burn lasts only a few minutes been shuts down because the craft is notfighting gravity

or atmospheric conditions in space itjust coasts the rest of the way without losing any a la city althoughthis practice still works well researchers in recentyears are looking into new ways to get todestinations one of the most intriguing ideas on the table is something called solar electricpropulsion or ftp home helping to lead this effort for nasa'sgame-changing development program his principal investigator chuck taylorthe new ideas what we're really focusing

on now electrical and i'd differentiate itselffrom chemical portion that rather than combusting fluid and getting managed explosion ifyou will your you're basically exciting ions andgetting an electron and ion stream leaving me into the engine and that's how youget your problem course this form of proportion is intriguing because it uses energy captured by tosign it relies on the acceleration of

ions using electricity generated by solararrays instead of the chemical energy stored in the propellant itself it isvery attractive to nasa planners because by using the sun's energy in theprocess considerably less propellant is being brought into orbit which reduces launch mass and cost anftp system is usually considered to consist of thelarger range generate power the power processingunits convert this power

and the cluster which uses the electric power to ionizedbeginner appellant an accelerated out of thespacecraft to generate price each of these elements are being studiedwith one of the most important piece being the large solar arrange themselves a bigchallenge facing planners is how to get enoughpower to complete missions we're creating harp a servo solar arrays they're about two times thethe size

i'll solar arrays they're news todaywe're we're talking about generating on the order 50 kilowatts of prime powerwhich was a substantial step up from what is used in commercial industrytoday or are any government satellite the biggest hurdle we we have to overcome is the massive those arrays and the storagefollowing those rims if you think about it them the the spacestation has a raise their a rough equivalent towhat we're trying to produce but it talk upwards or 10 shuttlemissions

to get those arrays on orbit haveastronauts actually go well and put them to getthem sample we're trying to make a arrays with just as much prime power but be able to be stowed on one rocketlaunch and have been deployed autonomousbecause these new arrays are so large and so unique testing them will take a very special facility just outside if sandusky ohio is one ofthe most important testing chambers in the world calledplum brook station

this nafta facility is home to theworld's largest space environment simulation chamber atjust over 100 feet wide and 122 feet tall it is possible forresearchers to perform full-scale tests space flight systemsbacking and temperature environment ranging fromlow-earth orbit deep space are planetary surfaceconditions may have seen this facility before ifyou saw the first avenger stone but the real world applications thatnasa is developing here have the potential to be morerevolutionary for future space missions

and anything hollywood could be top nasa's caroline mercer walks us throughthe facility to explain how nextgen solar arrays will be tested birth if the space power facility at nasa's plum brook station it is theworld's largest vacuum chamber and we are gonna bring one of our solararrays right in here to determine whether or not it really isgoing to be able to autonomously deploy in the conditionsthat simulate space namely vacuum and hot and coldtemperatures

just like a tall ship we have math nevergoing to be used to hold our cry oh shroud and booms and spreader bars toattach to the vacuum chamber the cry of shroud itself is called backbecause it's going to be cry or gently cool to get us to -60degrees of the earth and then warmed up to play 60 degreesfell yes this crime shroud is big tits 43 in diameter forty feet high appointedbig enough to whole are about 30 foot diameter solar array where as caroline mention

nasa will be testing these newthirty-foot solar arrays in this facility up course solar arraysin space are not new having been used for decades to powerspacecraft but if we are to move past low-earthorbit i'm into deeper space new technologies like improved soloraise will need to come online solar arraysare flying right now commercial geo stopped at a light are flying solar arrays for come and the international spacestation fly solar arrays as well

for comparison the new arrays that we'rebuilding right now are going to be about 20 kilowatts ofpower to provide about 20 a lot of electrical power and they're about a hundred metersquared inside so for comparison for a single solar arraywing on space station look at about halfagain as much power so about 30 kilowatts but its three times paper much larger area and for commercial satellite usingsolar arrays

to the yard it's about how the powerabout 10 kilowatt but the important thing is that that saythe yard uses rigid panel construction we call it forthe solar cells themselves are 6.2 like a honeycomb structure we're notdoing that anymore we have this really novel flexible placate technology so that that combined with highefficiency self lightweight structures we can get very large arrays so forinstance were building about 20 kilowatt sizedwings right now but to a home on a spacecraft got about40 or 50 kilowatts of power

that were unable to do exciting missionslike the asteroid direct fashion the very same design canbe scaled up to with a 250 or 300 kilowatt and thatwould allow us to them people out to an asteroid and the fametechnology can be scaled up yet again to maybe 800kilowatt and we can send people to mark saw i'm really excited about this technologybecause it is a stepping stone for how we're going to explore space different i was matters a lot becausesolar electric propulsion

for which these wings are here we'redeveloping it's a much more economical way home to explore deepspace for people of the solar arrays address the solar and electric part sep but what about the propulsion here atnasa gland researchers are working on new thrustersthat will work in concert with the arrays to power these new devices thrusters like theseuse the electricity captured by the arrays to i announcedthe fuel which in this case is

c'mon to produce the thrust that pushesthe craft for although this technology has been aroundfor decades the more than 200 satellites alreadyusing them only have very small brusters nasa needsmuch larger devices to move us further into space so there is a big push to build thesedevices here we have a 12 a lot hostmaster of mister technology isalso being investigated by i game-changing to provide on high fuelefficiency higher power higher thrust capabilitiesfor in space propulsion

i'm so this is about the same size asthe thrusters being developed no within the space technology missiondirectorate little bit larger in size the improvements that were trying tomake by starting with devices increasing lifetime an order ofmagnitude increasing power increasing exhaust lost the ions that exhaust velocity is a higher specificimpulse army provides better fuel essentiallywe're trying to do here under game-changing is really push onthree critical areas the power level so two or three timesthe country

hour-long higher exhaust velocity 50percent hired last last he was also higher floors and three orfour hacks the operational lifetime so just ashimmery comsats they have lifetimes for the spacecrafton the order of 10 to 15 years and that results in a not ten dollars anhour or so lifetime apartment station keeping pathfor the thrust we're talking about is a thrusterthat class forty or fifty thousand dollars operation multiple years operation butthe thrust his tiny on these types of

craft about the equivalent of the way to bookwine resting on a table but a major benefit is how long they canburn instead up a quick and powerful burn fora few minutes like chemical rapid is on rosters can burnfor thousands of hours which allows that tiny amount of thrustto build up into speeds needed for deep-spacemissions but solar electric propulsion can also be used closer to earth as well researchersbelieve that solar electric propulsion

could be used as a type of space dog that can take satellites launched at lowaltitudes and bring them to higher altitudes potentially savingmillions of dollars in propelling costs many believe that solar electricpropulsion may also be a viable way to servicesatellites remove dead satellites as well satellite are big industry right now andwhen they arm 2k and there are no longer inservice are very can just call someone up and haveauthors are with the big deal

plan something space to fix one whatspeaking exit they can generate a lot about themto the company's so at home solar electric propulsion is onemechanism we can use to get there potentially service left another missionup but it also can get really love the broken-downsatellites that are cluttering up her orbit social what we call our space debris problem so theirmultitude love commercial applications in andaround or for solar as sep technology gets largerand larger

researchers also see a need forthrusters to get even smaller without thought nasa researchers havebeen working on thrusters generically called mike with rostersthat can make small but precise maneuvers we're working with our micro electricspree rosters those are basically the size ofa sugar cube in rather than working are trying topush very large spacecraft asteroids were talking about trying to are

do a couple things provide mainpropulsion for cube sets very small satellites that are are now going into use for university research other governmentagencies are using from from various purposes and to date they've been launchedwithout proportion so we're creating thrusters it actually used very littlepower and can be used to both provide prime powerfor those spacecraft but also attitude control sothat you can reposition

point the big said like the way you wantto when you're you have a sensor looking oron the sensors are also so precise they can be used two-point telescopeslike the horrible are the james webb in the future and byusing these types of thrusters instead of our normal 10 farm positioning systems we're hoping todo greatly reduced the mass thoughsatellites hope is that in the end the systems are veryvery scaleable

i always use the analogy because myscreen tv rather than having one should work youwith them very minute amounts for austin i can string an entire flat panel togetherwith many many sugar cubes and reach across potential close to thetype two systems were building for that ass trick or treat now that's many yearsin the future but thats well we're hoping we can get outta that technology because if the efficiency in the basicdesign up so far we've seen

really innovative designs for spacecraft solar arrays and thrusters another component that needs to beaddressed for space missions is battery life and advanced fuel cell technology hereat nasa ground teams of researchers are working onnext-generation batteries and fuel cells for the advanced space power systemsproject the hope is that the work they are doing willrevolutionize the types of batteries and fuel cells that are currently being usedfor space missions what we're doing is so developingadvanced technologies

for power systems that will enable pop future missions space missions for nowso powers obviously a very important aspect for any nasa mission so it's it's critically important thatfor deep space exploration for instancewhere we have a very long term are missions that we have very reliablesystems what we low-maintenance systems are so weird currently focusing on developing advanced fuel cell technologyand

advance batters batteries or use for allof a relatively low our short duration needs for instance so for through vehicular activity va iactivities and fuel souls or value for higher powerlonger duration needs park cd 1 kilowatt hogs air force would be for rovers that may go out onextended missions are as well as surface systems would provide power to have it out sometools the astronauts would need in executingtheir mission

as well as waivers to provide powerafter landing on the system scavenging poland's hydrogen oxygen call from the tanks producing power for the surface operations without getting too technical a fuelcell is an electrochemical energy conversion device it converts the chemicals hydrogen andoxygen into water and in the process it produceselectricity in space applications include power in the number of devices

including rovers because there is a needfor lighter and more efficient fuel cells the team has completely reworked oldermodel fuel cells and produced much more efficient systems home the other electrochemical devicesthat we are all familiar with this the battery a major difference between a battery anda fuel cell is that a battery has all its chemicalsstored inside and it converts those chemicals intoelectricity the downside

is that a battery eventually goes deadand you either throw it away or recharge it with thefuel cell chemicals constantly file into the cellit never goes dad as long as there is a flow chemicalsinto the cell the electricity flows out at the cellmost fuel cells in use today use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicalsup because batteries are so important inspace by especially for eva's more space walksthere is a need to dramatically increase the link but the batteries willlast much of the work in this lab will

do just that where mingle its make better better me now lighter thing paper but by moran's with as well cell a lot of whatwe do here focuses on low-level leeson's what whatgoes into the better enough battery different materials there main component going to mac fell ano capital economy material separator and likely

so we do a little bit of work dabblinginto those materials %um happy function in the house gather this work has paid off these newbatteries will soon be going on for further casts into next gen spacesuitsfor final validation and because nafta is owned by theamerican public much of the technology being developed aday for space flight may soon be showing up in devices backyour honor as you can see power and propulsion will be cornerstone elements to futurenasa missions

and with each passing day the brilliantresearchers at nasa continues to increase our knowledge andunderstanding of our universe moving us into the unknown of deep space while enhancing all of ourlives back your honor as well


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